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Quantum mechanics / molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations are applied for anharmonic vibrational analyses of biomolecules and solvated molecules. The QM/MM method is implemented into a molecular dynamics (MD) program, GENESIS, by interfacing with external electronic structure programs. Following the geometry optimization and the harmonic normal mode analysis based on a partial Hessian, the anharmonic potential energy surface (PES) is generated from QM/MM energies and gradients calculated at grid points. The PES is used for vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) and post-VSCF calculations to compute the vibrational spectrum. The method is first applied to a phosphate ion in solution. By taking both the ion and neighboring water molecules as a QM region, IR spectra of representative hydration structures are calculated by the second-order vibrational quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (VQDPT2) at the level of B3LYP/cc-pVTZ and TIP3P force field. A weight average of IR spectra over the structures reproduces the experimental spectrum with a mean absolute deviation of 16 cm. Then, the method is applied to an enzyme, P450 nitric oxide reductase (P450nor), with the NO molecule bound to a ferric (Fe) heme. Starting from snapshot structures obtained from MD simulations of P450nor in solution, QM/MM calculations have been carried out at the level of B3LYP-D3/def2-SVP(D). The spin state of Fe(NO) is likely a closed-shell singlet state based on a ratio of N-O and Fe-NO stretching frequencies (ν and ν) calculated for closed- and open-shell singlet states. The calculated ν and ν overestimate the experimental ones by 120 and 75 cm, respectively. The electronic structure and solvation of Fe(NO) affect the structure around the heme of P450nor leading to an increase in ν and ν.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of chemical theory and computation
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Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
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