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The illegal trade is a major threat to many bird species, and parrots are common victims of this activity. Domestic and international pet markets are interested on different parrot species, such as the Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna). This South American macaw is not globally threatened, but is under protection from over-exploitation. This study aimed to identify and characterize novel microsatellite loci for population and parentage analysis of A. ararauna. Scaffold sequences of Ara macao available in the NCBI database were used for microsatellite searches using MsatCommander software. We tested a total of 28 loci, from which 25 were polymorphic, one was monomorphic, and two did not generated amplification products. For polymorphic loci, the mean number of alleles was 8.24 (4 - 15 alleles per locus), the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.333 to 0.917, and the expected heterozygosity from 0.353 to 0.890. The paternity exclusion probability and identity probability were highly discriminatory. Thus, these novel microsatellite markers can be useful for population assignment and paternity tests, helping the authorities to manage macaws from the illegal trafficking and control commercial breeders.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Genetics and molecular biology
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A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The occurrence of highly polymorphic mono- and dinucleotide MICROSATELLITE REPEATS in somatic cells. It is a form of genome instability associated with defects in DNA MISMATCH REPAIR.
The most common of the microsatellite tandem repeats (MICROSATELLITE REPEATS) dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes. They consist of two nucleotides repeated in tandem; guanine and thymine, (GT)n, is the most frequently seen.
Usually a benign tumor, that commonly presents as a solitary blue nodule with spindled MELANOCYTES covered by smooth SKIN. Several variants have been identified, one variant being malignant. The blue color is caused by large, densely packed melanocytes deep in the DERMIS of the nevus. In CHILDREN, they usually occur on the BUTTOCKS and LUMBOSACRAL REGION and are referred to as cellular blue nevi. Malignant blue nevi are more commonly found on the SCALP.
Genetic loci responsible for the encoding of minor lymphocyte stimulatory antigens. There are at least two unlinked loci (in the mouse) and they appear to be separate from the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX and MINOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY LOCI. The mouse mammary tumor virus (see MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, MOUSE) has the ability to integrate into these loci. The antigens induce strong T-cell proliferative responses in mixed lymphocyte reactions.