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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive memory failures and visuo-spatial impairment. Moreover, AD can be accompanied by autonomic system alterations, which, among others, affect thermoregulatory activity. We here investigated differences in autonomic activity between AD patients and healthy controls (HC) employing a complexity analysis of functional infrared imaging (fIRI) data acquired at rest and during the execution of clinical cognitive and mnemonic tests. FIRI allows for contact-less monitoring of autonomic activity and its thermoregulatory expression without interfering with the psychophysiological state of the subject preserving the free interaction with the doctor. The signal complexity analysis, based on the Sample Entropy, was compared to a standard frequency-based analysis of autonomic-related signals. AD patients exhibited lower complexity of fIRI signals during the tests which could be indicative of a stronger sympathetic activity with respect to HC. No significant effects were found at rest. No differences were found employing the frequency-based analysis. This study confirms that AD patients may exhibit peculiar autonomic responses associated with the execution of cognitive tasks that can be measured through fIRI. Moreover, these responses could be highlighted by a non-linear metric of signal predictability such as the Sample Entropy establishing autonomic impairment of AD patients. .
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physiological measurement
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Abnormal structures located chiefly in distal dendrites and, along with NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES and SENILE PLAQUES, constitute the three morphological hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. Neuropil threads are made up of straight and paired helical filaments which consist of abnormally phosphorylated microtubule-associated tau proteins. It has been suggested that the threads have a major role in the cognitive impairment seen in Alzheimer disease.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Impaired ambulation not attributed to sensory impairment or motor weakness. FRONTAL LOBE disorders; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES (e.g., PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS); DEMENTIA, MULTI-INFARCT; ALZHEIMER DISEASE; and other conditions may be associated with gait apraxia.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.
A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
Alzheimer's Disease Anesthesia Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorders Dementia Epilepsy Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neurology Pain Parkinson's Disease Sleep Disorders Neurology is the branch of me...