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Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that distributed in antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARBs) are widespread in aquaculture and have great threats to the aquatic organism as well as to human. However, our understanding about the risk of ARGs to the health of aquatic organism is still limited. In the present study, we got a deep insight into the diversity of ARGs in the intestinal bacteria of shrimp by culture-dependent and independent approaches. Results of the PCR-based detection and culture-dependent analysis indicated that the tetracycline, sulfadiazine, quinolone and erythromycin resistance genes were prevalent in the commercial shrimps that bought from aquatic markets or supermarket. The culture-independent plasmid metagenomic analysis identified 62 different ARGs, which were classified into 21 types, with abundances ranging from 13 to 1418 ppm. The analysis suggested that most of the ARGs come from the plasmids originating from Vibrio (accounted for 2.8-51%) and Aeromonas (accounted for 16-55%), and the Vibrio group was concluded to be the main bacterial pathogen that probably resulted in the shrimp disease. Accordingly, the plasmid metagenomic that focuses on the mobile genetic elements has great potential on the identification of ARGs in complex environments.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety
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The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
Proteins produced from GENES that have mutated by the fusing of protein coding regions of more than one gene. Such hybrid proteins are responsible for some instances of ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE and defective biological processes such as NEOPLASMS.
The process by which the V (variable), D (diversity), and J (joining) segments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES or T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES are assembled during the development of LYMPHOID CELLS using NONHOMOLOGOUS DNA END-JOINING.
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Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
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