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Bioremediation is a sustainable and cost-effective means of contaminant detoxification. Although Cr(VI) is toxic at high concentrations, various microbes can utilise it as an electron accepter in the bioremediation process, and reduce it to the less toxic form Cr(III). During remediation, it is important to monitor the level of toxicity and effectiveness of Cr(VI) reduction in order to optimize the conditions. This study employed a whole-cell bioreporter Acinetobacter baylyi ADPWH-recA to access the degree of toxicity of different species of Cr over a range of initial concentrations. It also investigated whether Cr isotope fractionation factors were impacted by different levels of Cr toxicity (related to its concentration) and Cr(VI) reduction rates by Cr resistant bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300. The results show that, of both CrO and CrO, the whole-cell bioreporter was efficient in indicating the level of genotoxicity of Cr(VI) at low concentrations and cytotoxicity at high concentrations via variations of bioluminescence. High concentrations (> 100 mg/L) of Cr(III) could also strongly induce the luminescence in the bioreporter, indicating DNA damage at such abundance. Pseudomonas fluorescens LB 300 was found to be effective in reducing Cr(VI) even when the concentration was high (40 mg/L); however, complete Cr(VI) reduction was only observed at low concentrations (< 5 mg/L), since the toxicity of high concentrations of Cr(VI) impacted the effectiveness of reduction by the bacteria. During reduction, the C53r/C52r ratio of remaining Cr(VI) increased from its initial value, and the calculated fractionation factor by bacterial Cr(VI) reduction (ε) was -3.1±0.3‰. The fractionation factor was independent of the initial Cr(VI) concentration. Therefore, a single Cr isotope fractionation factor can be effectively applied in indicating the extent of bioremediation processing of Cr(VI) over a wide range of concentrations. This significantly simplified monitoring of Cr(VI) depletion in bioremediation, since variations of ε normally indicate a change in the reduction mechanism and therefore would complicate the elucidation of processes driving the remediation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
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Assaying the products of or monitoring various biochemical processes and reactions in an individual cell.
Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
Restoration of an environment, ecosystem, or habitat that was physically damaged during land development or by natural disaster, or contaminated by ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.