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At intestinal level, after acute or chronic exposure to iNOS-derived NO a toxic mechanism of action leads to inflammation and degenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of glucuronide and sulfate metabolites of the extra virgin olive oil phenols tyrosol (Tyr) and hydroxytyrosol (HT), in comparison with their parent compounds, on the release of NO following exposure to a pro-inflammatory stimulus, the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2), differentiated as normal enterocytes, were treated with pathological concentrations of LPS, in order to stimulate iNOS pathway, which involve NF-ĸB activation through IĸBα phosphorylation and subsequent degradation induced by Akt or MAPKs. All the tested metabolites inhibited NO release induced by LPS, acting as inhibitors of iNOS expression, with an efficacy comparable to that of the parent compounds. HT and Tyr metabolites were effective in the inhibition of IĸBα degradation. No one of the compounds was able to inhibit Akt activation, whereas they modulated p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK. Obtained data show that HT and Tyr metabolites are able to prevent a pathological NO overproduction at intestinal level, where they concentrate, thus significantly contributing to the protective activity exerted by their parent compounds against inflammation.
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Freshly isolated endothelial cells from both conduit arteries and microvasculature were used to test the hypothesis that eNOS protein content and nitric oxide production in coronary endothelial cells ...
Nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) are a unique family of enzymes that catalyze the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine. Atherogenic action of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) may be m...
Catalpol ameliorates advanced glycation end product-induced dysfunction of glomerular endothelial cells via regulating nitric oxide synthesis by inducible nitric oxide synthase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase.
Catalpol (Cat.) is an iridoid glucoside extracted from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. In this study, we investigated whether Cat. could protect the mouse glomerular endothelial cells against...
Red blood cells (RBC) are exposed to varying shear stress while traversing the circulatory system; this shear initiates RBC-derived nitric oxide (NO) production.
As part of our ongoing program to develop anti-inflammatory agents, an extract derived from Saururus chinensis collected in Korea was found to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells. B...
The urea cycle consists of a series of chemical reactions through which the body converts toxic waste- nitrogen into a substance called urea that can be disposed of easily. While disposal ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate if adjuvant treatment with arginine (the substrate for nitric oxide production) rich food supplements could improve clinical outcome in patient...
The walls of blood vessels are lined by flat cells that are responsible for releasing substance(s) that control the activity of the blood vessel. These cells are referred to as the endoth...
This blinded, placebo-controlled study will administer inhaled nitric oxide to patients undergoing liver transplantation. The purpose of the study is to test if inhaled nitric oxide preven...
A minimum of 100 patients will be enrolled in the study to demonstrate which diagnostic treatment (oxygen or nitric oxide) is most capable of identifying patients with a reactive pulmonary...
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.