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Immune systems have evolved to recognize and eliminate pathogens and damaged cells. In humans, it is estimated to recognize 10 epitopes and natural selection ensures that clonally expanded cells replace unstimulated cells and overall immune cell numbers remain stationary. But, with age, it faces continuous repertoire restriction and concomitant accumulation of primed cells. Changes shaping the aging immune system have bitter consequences because, as inflammatory responses gain intensity and duration, tissue-damaging immunity and inflammatory disease arise. During inflammation, the glycolytic flux cannot cope with increasing ATP demands, limiting the immune response's extent. In diabetes, higher glucose availability stretches the glycolytic limit, dysregulating proteostasis and increasing T-cell expansion. Long-term hyperglycemia exerts an accumulating effect, leading to higher inflammatory cytokine levels and increased cytotoxic mediator secretion upon infection, a phenomenon known as diabetic chronic inflammation. Here we review the etiology of diabetic chronic inflammation and its consequences on wound healing.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.)
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The application of a vacuum across the surface of a wound through a foam dressing cut to fit the wound. This removes wound exudates, reduces build-up of inflammatory mediators, and increases the flow of nutrients to the wound thus promoting healing.
Removal of degenerated and necrotic epithelium and underlying connective tissue of a periodontal pocket in an effort to convert a chronic ulcerated wound to an acute surgical wound, thereby insuring wound healing and attachment or epithelial adhesion, and shrinkage of the marginal gingiva. The term is sometimes used in connection with smoothing of a root surface or ROOT PLANING. (Jablonski; Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.
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Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Alternative medicine are whole medical systems that did not fit with conventional medicine as they have completely different philosophies and ideas on the causes of disease, methods of diagnosis and approaches to treatment. Although often overlapping, co...