Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Aerobic exercise lowers blood pressure in patients with hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays a key role in the control of sympathetic outflow and cardiovascular tone. We examined whether chronic aerobic exercise altered synaptic transmission and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the PVN. In the present study, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were subjected to exercise training for 8 weeks, five times per week, with Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats as the cohort control. Miniature excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs and mIPSCs) were recorded from the PVN in ex vivo hypothalamic slice preparations obtained after the last training, and biomarkers of oxidative stress and physical indexes were observed. The mean frequency and amplitude, as well as the rise time and the decay time constant of mIPSCs, significantly decreased in 20-wk-old SHRs compared to WKY 20-wk-old controls. In contrast to mIPSCs, only the mean mEPSC frequency was higher, and there were no other changes in mEPSCs in comparison to the control group. SHRs exhibited higher ROS, 8-OHdG, and MDA; and lower SOD1, SOD2, CAT, Ogg1, and SOD and CAT activity in the PVN. These SHRs also had a significant increase in heart rate, blood pressure and sympathetic nerve activity, and higher levels of norepinephrine (NE). Exercise training ameliorated all these abnormalities, resulting in an increase in the mean frequency, amplitude and kinetics of mIPSCs, accompanied by a decrease in the mean frequency of mEPSCs in the PVN. This study demonstrates that moderate intensity, high frequency exercise training induces a selective enhancement of inhibitory synaptic transmission in the PVN, which may dampen sympathetic activity and reduce blood pressure in hypertension. These changes may be due to antioxidant-related adaptations in the PVNs of SHRs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Brain research
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been extensively studied as damaging agents associated with ageing and neurodegenerative conditions. Their role in the nervous system under non-pathological conditio...
What is the topic of this review? Within this review, the role of reactive oxygen species in cellular homeostasis, physiology and pathophysiology is discussed. What advances does it highlight? The rev...
Hydrogen peroxide (HO) is one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), endogenously produced during metabolism, which acts as a second messenger. In skeletal muscles, hypoxia-or hyperthermia-induced incr...
This study investigated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (O•, HO, and HO•) by promoting the Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox cycle with certain reducing agents (RAs) in aerobic aqueous solution, ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) not only are by-products of aerobic respiration, but also play vital roles in metabolism regulation and signal transductions. It is important to understand the functions ...
The overall objective of this clinical study is to determine if smokers who switch from their usual high reactive oxygen and nitrous oxide species (ROS/NOS) products to a low ROS/NOS produ...
Melatonin is a hormone that regulates the circadian cycle in addition to having an antioxidant effect. Patients with prediabetes state, has a deregulation of glucose metabolism and an over...
The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of inhaled apocynin on ROS (reactive oxygen species) and NOS (reactive nitrogen species) synthesis in 10 nonsmoking mild asthmatics. Effec...
Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Early during sepsis course, immature neutrophils could be found in the bloodstream and may...
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of one session of aerobic exercise associated with low level laser therapy in lipolytic activity, lipid profile and inflammator...
Controlled physical activity, more strenuous than at rest, which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used. The intensity of exercise is often graded, using criteria such as rate of work done, oxygen consumption, and heart rate.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A mitochondrial uncoupling protein that is expressed in many tissues and exhibits the greatest expression in SKELETAL MUSCLE. It regulates mitochondrial ATP production and the generation of REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic or microaerophilic, colorless filaments. It is nonfruiting, motile by gliding, and found in freshwater sediments and cow dung. One species (V. stercoraria) is considered morphologically to be a streptobacillus. That species is strictly aerobic and produces a homodimeric bacterial hemoglobin, especially under oxygen-limited growth conditions. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved on October 8th 2013 Adempas® (riociguat) tablets for: (i) the treatment of adults with persistent/recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) (WHO* Group 4) after ...
Diabetes Diabetes Endocrine Disorders Obesity Oxycontin Renal Disease Thyroid Disorders Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they secrete (Oxford Medical Dictionary). There are several g...