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Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of human visceral leishmaniosis and canine leishmaniosis, both systemic and potentially fatal diseases. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first cells to phagocyte this parasite at the inoculation site, but macrophages (MØ) are the definitive host cells, ensuring parasite replication. The interaction between dog MØ, PMN, and L. infantum promastigotes was in vitro investigated. It was observed that promastigotes establish contact with blood monocyte-derived MØ (BMDM) mainly by the tip of the flagellum. These cells, that efficiently bind and internalize parasites, underwent major morphological changes, produced nitric oxide (NO) and released histone H1 in order to inactivate the parasite. Transfer of intracellular parasites from PMN to MØ was confirmed by flow cytometry, using L. infantum expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP). The interaction of MØ with L. infantum infected-PMN lead to NO production and release of extracellular traps, which may contribute to parasite containment and inactivation. This study highlights for the first time the diversity of cellular and molecular events triggered by the interaction between canine PMN and MØ, which can promote a reduction of parasite burden in the early phase of L. infantum infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Parasite immunology
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A disorder of the buccal mucosa resembling early leukoplakia, characterized by the presence of filmy opalescence of the mucosa in the early stages to a whitish gray cast with a coarsely wrinkled surface in the later stages, associated with intracellular edema of the spinous or malpighian layer. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.
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