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Scleral ossicles are bony elements found along the eyes of many fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. These bones provide a superficial layer of support to the eye and may facilitate visual acuity. Previous research has shown that scleral ossicle diversity is generally limited among teleosts, but that scleral ossicles have been lost numerous times among teleosts inhabiting benthopelagic habitats (Franz-Odendaal, 2008). In this study we further investigate these patterns of intra- and inter-specific variation by examining eyes from multiple individuals of ten riverine teleosts native to Kentucky as well as one population of the Mexican blind cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus, and by re-analyzing a quantitative database of scleral ossicle number and depth preference from over 100 teleosts using newly resolved teleost phylogenies. Consistent with the limited diversity of most teleost families, we find that intraspecific variation in scleral ossicle number and size is virtually non-existent among the species sampled, although we do find evidence of additional inter-specific variation among the Cyprinodontiformes, as well as dramatic intra-population variation among cavefish from Chica Cave. Although our data replicates the negative relationship between scleral ossicle number and the depth preference previously found among teleosts (Franz-Odendaal, 2008), even when accounting for phylogenetic relationships, our results further reveal that this relationship is relatively weak. We conclude that further sampling may reveal additional inter- and even intra-specific variation among some groups of teleosts, and that depth could serve as a proxy for other life history traits that more directly influence teleost scleral ossicle diversity such as prey-capture strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)
The stoichiometric characteristics of plant communities are important controller for several fundamental ecological processes. The effects of environmental changes on community stoichiometric characte...
Vulnerability to embolism varies between con-generic species distributed along aridity gradients, yet little is known about intra-specific variation and its drivers. Even less is known about intra-spe...
This study aimed to prospectively investigate the association between body weight (ΔBW) or body volume variations (ΔBV) and inter- or intra-fractional variations (Δ(inter) or Δ(intra)) in patients...
To compare the reliability and repeatability of simplified skeletal maturity scoring (SSMS) and thumb ossification composite index (TOCI) in the assessment of skeletal maturity in adolescent idiopathi...
Here we report the case of a patient who required closure with an autologous scleral patch graft during reoperation after developing marked scleral thinning in the late stage after pars plana phacoemu...
This study will be done with subjects who already habitually wear scleral contact lenses. The study lens is made with a material that is already widely available and has a new design. It w...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether Bisphosphonates in comparison to radiation therapy are effective in the prophylaxis and treatment of heterotopic ossification in high risk...
This is a study to evaluate the performance of Lid Scrubs when added to the daily regimen of scleral lens wear. Lid Scrubs contain surfactants and chemically developed Ringer's solution wi...
Tangible Hydra-PEG is a novel coating technology designed to improve lens wettability, deposit resistance, and tear film breakup time. This is a randomized double masked cross-over study t...
This study evaluates the Visual Acuity and refraction of patients post 4-point Scleral fixation of BunnyLens (Intra Ocular Lens- IOL) with GoreTex sutures. All patients underwent secondary...
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.
Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.
Arthroplasty Joint Disorders Orthopedics Spinal Cord Disorders Orthopedics is the science or practice of correcting deformities caused by disease or damage to the bones and joints of the skeleton. This specialized branch of surgery may ...
Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that is devoted to the study and treatment of eye diseases. As well as mild visual defects correctable by lenses, ophthalmology is concerned with glaucoma, uveitis and other serious conditions affecting the eye, ...