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Two other optically related water quality variables also directly affect
non-algal suspended solids (SS ) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, expressed as the absorption coefficient at 440 nm, a ). Using a database of ~ 1460 samples from ~ 625 inland lake basins in Minnesota and two other Upper Midwest states, Wisconsin and Michigan, we analyzed relationships among these variables, with special focus on CDOM levels that influence SD values and the Minnesota SD standards used to assess eutrophication impairment of lakes. Log-transformed chl-a, total suspended solids (TSS), and SD were strongly correlated with each other; log a had major effects on log SD but was only weakly correlated with log chl-a and log TSS. Multiple regression models for log SD and 1/SD based on the three driving variables (chl-a, SS , and CDOM) explained ~80% of the variance in SD in the whole data set, but substantial differences in the form of the best-fit relationships were found between major ecoregions. High chl-a concentrations (> 50 μg/L) and TSS (> 20 mg/L) rarely occurred in lakes with high CDOM (a > ~ 4 m ), and all lakes with a > 8 m had SD ≤ 2.0 m despite low chl-a values (< 10 μg/L) in most lakes. Further statistical analyses revealed that CDOM has significant effects on SD at a values > ~ 4 m . Thus, SD is not an accurate trophic state metric in moderately to highly colored lakes, and Minnesota's 2-m SD criterion should not be the sole metric to assess eutrophication impairment in warm/cool-water lakes of the Northern Lakes and Forest ecoregion. More generally, trophic state assessments using SD in regions with large landscape sources of CDOM need to account for effects of CDOM on SD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America
Lakes provide recreational benefits related to water quality. Using data from the 2007 and 2012 United States National Lake Assessments (=2067 lake visits), we developed indicators for three benefits:...
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The content of trace metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu) was examined in water-in the suspended and dissolved forms, in the suspended material and organisms of the food chain-phytoplankton-filter-feeding bivalves...
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of several factors (light, extrinsic stain removal and operator's experience) in tooth color assessment. Tooth color will be assessed by ...
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The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
A form of phototherapy using color to influence health and to treat various physical or mental disorders. The color rays may be in the visible or invisible spectrum and can be administered through colored lights or applied mentally through suggestion.
Widely distributed unicellular or multicellular bacteria. The CYANOBACTERIA use chlorophyll a and phycobilins for oxygenic photosynthesis while genera in the Prochlorales use both chlorophyll a and b but not phycobilins.
The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.