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Since Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins have been implicated in cellular adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, we investigated the regulation of ER stress-induced apoptosis by small-molecule second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) mimetics that antagonize IAP proteins. Here, we discover that Smac mimetic suppresses tunicamycin (TM)-induced apoptosis via resolution of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and ER stress. Smac mimetics such as BV6 selectively inhibit apoptosis triggered by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of protein N-glycosylation using TM or knockdown of DPAGT1, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of protein N-glycosylation. In contrast, BV6 does not rescue cell death induced by other typical ER stressors (i.e., thapsigargin (TG), dithiothreitol, brefeldin A, bortezomib, or 2-deoxyglucose). The protection from TM-triggered apoptosis is found for structurally different Smac mimetics and for genetic knockdown of cellular IAP (cIAP) proteins in several cancer types, underlining the broader relevance. Interestingly, lectin microarray profiling reveals that BV6 counteracts TM-imposed inhibition of protein glycosylation. BV6 consistently abolishes TM-stimulated accumulation of ER stress markers such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and reduces protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) phosphorylation and X box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) splicing upon TM treatment. BV6-stimulated activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) contributes to the resolution of ER stress, since NF-κB inhibition by overexpression of dominant-negative IκBα superrepressor counteracts the suppression of TM-stimulated transcriptional activation of CHOP and GRP78 by BV6. Thus, our study is the first to show that Smac mimetic protects from TM-triggered apoptosis by resolving the UPR and ER stress. This provides new insights into the regulation of cellular stress responses by Smac mimetics.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cell death & disease
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An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
A forkhead box transcription factor and transcriptional activator which triggers type 1 programmed cell death (APOPTOSIS) in the absence of APOPTOSIS INHIBITING PROTEINS, including neuronal cell death induced by OXIDATIVE STRESS. It recognizes and binds to the DNA sequence 5'-(AG)TAAA(TC)A-3' and also functions in post-transcriptional regulation of the c-MYC PROTO-ONCOGENE.
A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is found predominantly within NEURONS of the BRAIN, suggesting a role in stress-induced neuronal APOPTOSIS. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 47 kDa and 52 kDa exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.
Multimeric protein complexes formed in the CYTOSOL that play a role in the activation of APOPTOSIS. They can occur when MITOCHONDRIA become damaged due to cell stress and release CYTOCHROME C. Cytosolic cytochrome C associates with APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1 to form the apoptosomal protein complex. The apoptosome signals apoptosis by binding to and activating specific INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
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