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Molecular dynamics represents a key enabling technology for applications ranging from biology to the development of new materials. However, many real-world applications remain inaccessible to fully resolved simulations due to their unsustainable computational costs and must therefore rely on semiempirical coarse-grained models. Significant efforts have been devoted in the last decade towards improving the predictivity of these coarse-grained models and providing a rigorous justification of their use, through a combination of theoretical studies and data-driven approaches. One of the most promising research efforts is the (re)discovery of the Mori-Zwanzig projection as a generic, yet systematic, theoretical tool for deriving coarse-grained models. Despite its clean mathematical formulation and generality, there are still many open questions about its applicability and assumptions. In this work, we propose a detailed derivation of a hybrid multiscale system, generalizing and further investigating the approach developed in Español [Europhys. Lett. 88, 40008 (2009)10.1209/0295-5075/88/40008]. Issues such as the general coexistence of atoms (fully resolved degrees of freedom) and beads (larger coarse-grained units), the role of the fine-to-coarse mapping chosen, and the approximation of effective potentials are discussed. The theoretical discussion is supported by numerical simulations of a monodimensional nonlinear periodic benchmark system with an open-source parallel Julia code, easily extensible to arbitrary potential models and fine-to-coarse mapping functions. The results presented highlight the importance of introducing, in the macroscopic model, nonconstant fluctuating and dissipative terms, given by the Mori-Zwanzig approach, to correctly reproduce the reference fine-grained results, without requiring ad hoc calibration of interaction potentials and thermostats.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physical review. E
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