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Cocaine use is associated with breach in the blood brain barrier (BBB) and increased HIV-1 neuro-invasion. We show that the cellular enzyme "Prolidase" plays a key role in cocaine-induced disruption of the BBB. We established a barrier model to mimic the BBB by culturing human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in transwell inserts. In this model, cocaine treatment enhanced permeability of FITC-dextran suggesting a breach in the barrier. Interestingly, cocaine treatment increased the activity of matrix metallo-proteinases that initiate degradation of the BBB-associated collagen. Cocaine exposure also induced prolidase expression and activity in HBMECs. Prolidase catalyzes the final and rate-limiting step of collagen degradation during BBB remodeling. Knock-down of prolidase abrogated cocaine-mediated increased permeability suggesting a direct role of prolidase in BBB breach. To decipher the mechanism by which cocaine regulates prolidase, we probed the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mediated phosphorylation of prolidase since mRNA levels of the protein were not altered upon cocaine treatment. We observed increased iNOS expression concurrent with increased prolidase phosphorylation in cocaine treated cells. Subsequently, inhibition of iNOS decreased prolidase phosphorylation and reduced cocaine-mediated permeability. Finally, cocaine treatment increased transmigration of monocytic cells through the HBMEC barrier. Knock-down of prolidase reduced cocaine-mediated monocyte transmigration, establishing a key role of prolidase in cocaine-induced breach in endothelial cell barrier.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Scientific reports
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The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of endoneurial CAPILLARIES. The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Rare autosomal recessive disorder of metabolism due to mutations in the prolidase gene. It is characterized by recurrent lower extremity skin ulcers, recurrent infections, and FACIES, often with mental retardation.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...