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Global warming exerts profound impacts on terrestrial carbon cycles and feedback to climates. Ecosystem respiration (ER) is one of the main components of biosphere CO fluxes. However, knowledge regarding how ER responds to warming is still lacking. In this study, a manipulative experiment with five simulated temperature increases (+0℃ [Control], +2.1℃ [warming 1, W1], +2.7℃ [warming 2, W2], +3.2℃ [warming 3, W3], +3.9℃ [warming 4, W4]) was conducted to investigate ER responses to warming in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that ER was suppressed by warming both in dry and wet years. The responses of ER to warming all followed a nonlinear pattern. The nonlinear processes can be divided into three stages, the quick-response stage (W1), stable stage (W1-W3), and transition stage (W4). Compared with the nonlinear model, the linear model maximally overestimated the response ratios of ER to warming 2.2% and 3.2% in 2015 and 2016, respectively, and maximally underestimated the ratio 7.0% and 2.7%. The annual differences in ER responding to warming were mainly attributed to the distinct seasonal distribution of precipitation. Specially, we found that the abrupt shift response of ER to warming under W4 treatment in 2015, which might be regulated by the excitatory effect of precipitation after long-term drought in the mid-growing season. This study highlights the importance of the nonlinearity of warming effects on ER, which should be taken into the global-C-cycling models for better predicting future carbon-climate feedbacks.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Ecology and evolution
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The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Microscopic imaging techniques that utilize nonlinear responses of light-matter interactions which occur with high-intensity illumination, such as from LASERS, and specialized light signal detection instrumentation to produce images without the need for dyes or fluorescent labels.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
A cellular response to environmental insults that cause disruptions in PROTEIN FOLDING and/or accumulation of defectively folded protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It consists of a group of regulatory cascades that are triggered as a response to altered levels of calcium and/or the redox state of the endoplasmic reticulum. Persistent activation of the unfolded protein response leads to the induction of APOPTOSIS.
Infectious diseases originating in one geographically delineated ecosystem that are carried (by travel or immigration) to another geographically delineated ecosystem by an infected individual, animal, or disease vector.