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Packed red blood cells are a critical component in the resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock. The availability of donor-derived blood products, however, suffers from issues of supply, immunogenicity, and pathogenic contamination. Deployment in remote or austere environments, such as the battlefield, is further hindered by the inherent perishability of blood products. In order to address the significant limitations of allogenic packed red blood cells and the urgent medical need for better resuscitative therapies for both combat casualties and civilians, there has been significant research invested in developing safe, effective, and field deployable artificial oxygen carriers. This article provides a comprehensive review of the most important technologies in the field of artificial oxygen carriers including cell-free and encapsulated hemoglobin based oxygen carriers, perfluorocarbon emulsions, natural hemoglobin alternatives, as well as other novel technologies. Their development status, clinical, and military relevance are discussed. STUDY
Review Article LEVEL OF
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The journal of trauma and acute care surgery
Human hemoglobin is an essential protein, whose main function as an oxygen carrier is indispensable for life. Hemoglobin is a cofactor-containing protein with heme as prosthetic group. Same as in huma...
Carriers of the sickle cell trait (HbAS) usually remain asymptomatic. However, under conditions of low tissue oxygenation, red blood cell sickling and vascular obstruction may develop. Chronic kidney ...
Hemorrhage is the most common cause of preventable death in the pre-hospital phase in trauma, with a critical capability gap optimizing pre-hospital resuscitation in austere environments. One promisin...
Oxygen is known as an irreplaceable gas in the lives of most eukaryotic cells, yet researchers underestimate its importance, as in the case in many studies of tumors. The variable oxygen content of ma...
Culicidae colonization in laboratory is paramount to conduct studies aiming at a better understanding of mosquitoes' capacity to transmit pathogens that cause deadly diseases. Colonization requires fe...
β thalassemia is an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy and considered as the most widespread genetic mutation. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) between 1.5-7% of the wor...
RATIONALE: Collecting information about HTLV-1 carriers and HTLV-1 associated illnesses in blood donors in Jamaica may help doctors learn more about these diseases. PURPOSE: This clinical...
The primary goal of Hemanext. is to improve red cell storage through novel storage methods. Based on our review of the pertinent literature, there is substantial evidence suggesting that p...
The investigators propose to conduct a feasibility, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of targeted oxygen therapy in adult critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation v...
Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder that affects red blood cells (RBCs). People with sickle cell disease frequently experience anemia, or a low number of RBCs. RBCs are resp...
Substances that can carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the tissues when introduced into the blood stream. They are used to replace hemoglobin in severe hemorrhage and also to perfuse isolated organs. The best known are perfluorocarbon emulsions and various hemoglobin solutions.
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
High molecular weight (1,500,000 to 3,000,000) hemoglobins found in the plasma of many polychete and oligochete annelid worms and various mollusks. They bind one mole of oxygen per heme and function as oxygen carriers.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...