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Formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3) is one of the most extensively studied perovskite materials due to its narrow band gap and high absorption coefficient, which makes it highly suitable for optoelectronic applications. Deposition of a solution containing lead iodide (PbI2) and formamidinium iodide (FAI) or sequential deposition of PbI2 and FAI usually leads to the formation of films with a poor morphology and an unstable crystal structure that readily crystallize into two different polymorphs: the photoinactive yellow phase and the photoactive black phase. In this work, 2D 2-phenylethylammonium lead iodide (PEA2PbI4) thin films are deposited by a scalable doctor-blade coating technique and used as a growth template for the high-quality 3D FAPbI3 perovskite thin films which are obtained by organic cation exchange. We report the structural, morphological and optical properties of these converted 3D FAPbI3 perovskite films which we compare to the directly deposited 3D FAPbI3 films. The converted FAPbI3 thin films are compact, smooth, and highly oriented and exhibit better structural stability in comparison with the directly deposited 3D films. These results not only underscore the importance of the employed deposition techniques in fabricating highly crystalline and stable perovskite thin films but also provide a strategy to easily obtain very compact perovskite layers using doctor-blade coating.
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The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.
Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the crystalline lens of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyoid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
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The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.