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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential therapeutics for the treatment of periodontal defects. It is increasingly accepted that MSCs mediate tissue repair through secretion of trophic factors, particularly exosomes. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effects of human MSC exosome-loaded collagen sponge for regeneration of surgically created periodontal intrabony defects in an immunocompetent rat model. We observed that relative to control rats, exosome-treated rats repaired the defects more efficiently with regeneration of periodontal tissues including newly-formed bone and periodontal ligament (PDL). We also observed that concomitant with this, there was increased cellular infiltration and proliferation. We therefore postulated that MSC exosomes enhanced regeneration through increased cellular mobilisation and proliferation. Using PDL cell cultures, we demonstrated that MSC exosomes could increase PDL cell migration and proliferation through CD73-mediated adenosine receptor activation of pro-survival AKT and ERK signalling. Inhibition of AKT or ERK phosphorylation suppressed PDL cell migration and proliferation. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that MSC exosomes enhance periodontal regeneration possibly by increasing PDL migration and proliferation. This study suggests that MSC exosome is a viable ready-to-use and cell-free MSC therapeutic for the treatment of periodontal defects. STATEMENT OF
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies have demonstrated regenerative potential for the treatment of periodontal defects. However, translation of cellular therapies is hampered by challenges in maintaining optimal cell vitality and viability from manufacturing and storage to final delivery to patients. Although the use of MSCs for tissue repair was first predicated on their differentiation potential, the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs has increasingly been attributed to its paracrine secretion, particularly exosomes or small extracellular vesicles. In this study, MSC exosome-loaded collagen sponge enhanced periodontal regeneration in an immunocompetent rat periodontal defect model without any obvious adverse effects. These findings provide the basis for future development of MSC exosomes as a cell-free strategy for periodontal regeneration.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Acta biomaterialia
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Loss or destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis or other destructive periodontal diseases or by injury during instrumentation. Attachment refers to the periodontal ligament which attaches to the alveolar bone. It has been hypothesized that treatment of the underlying periodontal disease and the seeding of periodontal ligament cells enable the creating of new attachment.
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell. Often the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred into a recipient OVUM or stem cell (STEM CELLS) with the nucleus removed. This technology may provide means to generate autologous diploid pluripotent cell for therapeutic cloning, and a model for studying NUCLEAR REPROGRAMMING in embryonic stem cells. Nuclear transfer was first accomplished with frog eggs (RANA PIPIENS) and reported in 1952.
A homeodomain protein and transcription regulator that functions in BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS and EMBRYONIC STEM CELL proliferation and CELL SELF RENEWAL. It confers pluripotency on embryonic stem cells and prevents their differentiation towards extraembryonic ENDODERM and trophectoderm (TROPHOBLAST) CELL LINEAGES.
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