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This article analyzes the interplay between nitro's π-hole and halogen-bonding (XB) interactions in nitroarenes. Remarkable cooperativity effects are observed when π-hole and XB interactions coexist in the same complex. The nitroarene presents two π-holes, one approximately over the N atom of the nitro group and the other over the aromatic ring, being the former more positive. The interplay between both interactions has been analyzed in terms of energetic and geometric features of the complexes, which are computed at the RI-MP2/def2-TZVPD level of theory. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surface calculations have been used to explore the variation of the MEP values at the π-hole upon the formation of halogen bonding interactions between the nitroarene and CF3X (X = Cl, Br and I) molecules. In addition, the Bader's theory of atoms in molecules" (AIM) is used to characterize the interactions by means of the distribution of bond critical points and bond paths and to analyze their strengthening or weakening depending upon the variation of charge density at critical points. The aforementioned computational methods are adequate to examine how these interactions mutually influence each other. Natural bond orbital (NBO) and noncovalent interaction plot (NCIPlot) computational tools have been also used in some representative complexes to further analyze cooperativity effects. Finally, the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is used to provide some experimental evidence.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Chemphyschem : a European journal of chemical physics and physical chemistry
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Enzymes which reduce nitro groups (NITRO COMPOUNDS) and other nitrogenous compounds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).