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Bioclogging is a main concern in infiltration systems as it may significantly shorten the service life of these low-technology water treatment methods. In porous media, biofilms grow to clog partially or totally the pore network. Dynamics of biofilm accumulation (e.g., by attachment, detachment, advective transport in depth) and their impact on both surface and deep bioclogging are still not yet fully understood. To address this concern, a 104 day-long outdoor infiltration experiment in sand tanks was performed, using secondary treated wastewater and two grain size distributions (GSDs): a monolayer system filled with fine sand, and a bilayer one composed by a layer of coarse sand placed on top of a layer of fine sand. Biofilm dynamics as a function of GSD and depth were studied through cross-correlations and multivariate statistical analyses using different parameters from biofilm biomass and activity indices, plus hydraulic parameters measured at different depths. Bioclogging (both surface and deep) was found more significant in the monolayer fine system than in the bilayer coarse-fine one, possibly due to an early low-cohesive biofilm formation in the former, driven by lower porosity and lower fluxes; under such conditions biomass is favorably detached from the top layer, transported and accumulated in depth, so that new biomass might colonize the surface. On the other hand, in the bilayer system, fluxes are highest, and the biofilm is still in a growing phase, with low biofilm detachment capability from the top sand layer and high microbial activity in depth, resulting in low bioclogging. Overall, the bilayer coarse-fine system allows infiltrating higher volume of water per unit of surface area than the monolayer fine one, minimizing surface and deep bioclogging, and thus increasing the longevity and efficiency of infiltration systems.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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A pathologic change in leukemia in which leukemic cells permeate various organs at any stage of the disease. All types of leukemia show various degrees of infiltration, depending upon the type of leukemia. The degree of infiltration may vary from site to site. The liver and spleen are common sites of infiltration, the greatest appearing in myelocytic leukemia, but infiltration is seen also in the granulocytic and lymphocytic types. The kidney is also a common site and of the gastrointestinal system, the stomach and ileum are commonly involved. In lymphocytic leukemia the skin is often infiltrated. The central nervous system too is a common site.
Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.
Conducting a fine needle biopsy with the aid of ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
A heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of prolonged eosinophilia of unknown cause and associated organ system dysfunction, including the heart, central nervous system, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. There is a massive increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood, mimicking leukemia, and extensive eosinophilic infiltration of the various organs. It is often referred to as idiopathic.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.