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The GalNAc-T Activation (GALA) Pathway: Drivers and markers.

08:00 EDT 19th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "The GalNAc-T Activation (GALA) Pathway: Drivers and markers."

The enzymes GALNTs add GalNAc sugar to Ser and Thr residues, forming the Tn glycan. GALNTs are activated by trafficking from Golgi to ER, a process driven by the Src kinase and negatively regulated by ERK8. This GALNTs activation (aka GALA) pathway induces high Tn levels and is a key driver of liver tumor growth. Recently, Tabak and colleagues have contested our previous data that EGF stimulation can induce GALNTs relocation. Here, we show that relocation induced by EGF is actually detectable in the very images acquired by Tabak et al. Furthermore, we show that over-expression of EGFR strongly enhances EGF-induced relocation and that EGFR appears required to drive relocation induced by ERK8 depletion. Direct co-localisation of GALNT with the ER marker Calnexin is observed after EGF stimulation. We furthermore propose that quantification of O-glycosylation of the ER resident protein PDIA4 provides a mean to quantify GALA independently of imaging. In sum, we demonstrate that the claimed non-reproducibility was due to experimental imaging conditions, that EGFR is indeed a driver of GALA and propose additional markers to facilitate the study of this pathway.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: PloS one
ISSN: 1932-6203
Pages: e0214118

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.

Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).

The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activa

An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).

A serine protease that cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C5B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It is the complex of ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) with an additional COMPLEMENT C3B, or C3bBb3b.

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