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Mg2+ is the most abundant divalent cation in living cells, where it is required for various intracellular functions. In chloroplasts and cyanobacteria, established photosynthetic model systems, Mg2+ is the central ion in chlorophylls, and Mg2+ flux across the thylakoid membrane is required for counterbalancing the light-induced generation of a ΔpH across the thylakoid membrane. Yet, not much is known about Mg2+ homoeostasis, transport and distribution within cyanobacteria. However, Mg2+ transport across membranes has been studied in non-photosynthetic bacteria, and first observations and findings are reported for chloroplasts. Cyanobacterial cytoplasmic membranes appear to contain the well-characterized Mg2+ channels CorA and/or MgtE, which both facilitate transmembrane Mg2+ flux down the electrochemical gradient. Both Mg2+ channels are typical for non-photosynthetic bacteria. Furthermore, Mg2+ transporters of the MgtA/B family are also present in the cytoplasmic membrane to mediate active Mg2+ import into the cyanobacterial cell. While the cytoplasmic membrane of cyanobacteria resembles a "classical" bacterial membrane, essentially nothing is known about Mg2+ channels and/or transporters in thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria or chloroplasts. As discussed here, at least one Mg2+ channelling protein must be localized within thylakoid membranes. Thus, either one of the "typical" bacterial Mg2+ channels has a dual localization in the cytoplasmic plus the thylakoid membrane, or another, yet unidentified channel is present in cyanobacterial thylakoid membranes.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biological chemistry
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Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
Those nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity which are located within the CHLOROPLAST DNA.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
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