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Mg2+ homeostasis and transport in cyanobacteria - at the crossroad of bacterial and chloroplast Mg2+ import.

07:00 EST 1st December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Mg2+ homeostasis and transport in cyanobacteria - at the crossroad of bacterial and chloroplast Mg2+ import."

Mg2+ is the most abundant divalent cation in living cells, where it is required for various intracellular functions. In chloroplasts and cyanobacteria, established photosynthetic model systems, Mg2+ is the central ion in chlorophylls, and Mg2+ flux across the thylakoid membrane is required for counterbalancing the light-induced generation of a ΔpH across the thylakoid membrane. Yet, not much is known about Mg2+ homoeostasis, transport and distribution within cyanobacteria. However, Mg2+ transport across membranes has been studied in non-photosynthetic bacteria, and first observations and findings are reported for chloroplasts. Cyanobacterial cytoplasmic membranes appear to contain the well-characterized Mg2+ channels CorA and/or MgtE, which both facilitate transmembrane Mg2+ flux down the electrochemical gradient. Both Mg2+ channels are typical for non-photosynthetic bacteria. Furthermore, Mg2+ transporters of the MgtA/B family are also present in the cytoplasmic membrane to mediate active Mg2+ import into the cyanobacterial cell. While the cytoplasmic membrane of cyanobacteria resembles a "classical" bacterial membrane, essentially nothing is known about Mg2+ channels and/or transporters in thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria or chloroplasts. As discussed here, at least one Mg2+ channelling protein must be localized within thylakoid membranes. Thus, either one of the "typical" bacterial Mg2+ channels has a dual localization in the cytoplasmic plus the thylakoid membrane, or another, yet unidentified channel is present in cyanobacterial thylakoid membranes.

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Name: Biological chemistry
ISSN: 1437-4315
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