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Diesel-powered trains are used worldwide for passenger transport. The present study aimed to assess air pollution concentrations in passenger cars from diesel and electric trains. Personal exposure monitoring (6-7 hours per day) was carried out for 49 days on diesel and 22 days on electric trains. Diesel trains had higher concentrations of all the assessed air pollution components. Average increases (and fold differences) in passenger cars of diesel trains compared with electric trains were for ultrafine particles 212,000 particles/cm3 (35-fold), black carbon 8.3 µg/m3 (6-fold), NOX 316 µg/m3 (8-fold), NO2 38 µg/m3 (3-fold), PM2.5 34 µg/m3 (2-fold) and benzo(a)pyrene 0.14 ng/m3 (6-fold). From time-series data, the pull and push movement modes, the engine in use and the distance to the locomotive influenced the concentrations inside the diesel trains. In conclusion, concentrations of all air pollutants were significantly elevated in passenger cars in diesel trains compared to electric trains.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science & technology
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Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.
An order of neotropical electric fish found chiefly in the waters of South America. They continually emit weak electric discharges, which they use in object location and communication. A most popular species of research interest is the electric eel, ELECTROPHORUS electricus.
Fishes which generate an electric discharge. The voltage of the discharge varies from weak to strong in various groups of fish. The ELECTRIC ORGAN and electroplax are of prime interest in this group. They occur in more than one family.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)