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Peripheral inflammatory stimuli increase proinflammatory cytokines in the bloodstream and central nervous system and activate microglial cells. Here we tested the hypothesis that contrasting environments mimicking sedentary and active lives would be associated with differential microglial morphological responses, inflammatory cytokines concentration, and virus load in the peripheral blood. For this, mice were maintained either in standard (standard environment) or enriched cages (enriched environment) and then subjected to a single (DENV1) serotype infection. Blood samples from infected animals showed higher viral loads and higher tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) mRNA concentrations than control subjects. Using an unbiased stereological sampling approach, we selected 544 microglia from lateral septum for microscopic 3D reconstruction. Morphological complexity contributed most to cluster formation. Infected groups exhibited significant increase in the microglia morphological complexity and number, despite the absence of dengue virus antigens in the brain. Two microglial phenotypes (type I with lower and type II with higher morphological complexity) were found in both infected and control groups. However, microglia from infected mice maintained in enriched environment showed only one morphological phenotype. Two-way ANOVA revealed that environmental changes and infection influenced type-I and II microglial morphologies and number. Environmental enrichment and infection interactions may contribute to microglial morphological change to a point that type-I and II morphological phenotypes could no longer be distinguished in infected mice from enriched environment. Significant linear correlation was found between morphological complexity and TNFα peripheral blood. Our findings demonstrated that sedentary-like and active murine models exhibited differential microglial responses and peripheral inflammation to systemic non-neurotropic infections with DENV1 virus.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
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The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The continuous, long-term suppression of VIRAL LOAD, generally to undetectable levels, as the result of treatment with ANTIVIRAL AGENTS.
Immunoglobulins produced as a response to VIRAL ANTIGENS; includes all classes of immunoglobulins elicited by all viral components.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Morphological findings useful in differentiation and classification of results in CYTODIAGNOSIS and related techniques.
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