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Gold typically crystallizes in a cubic close-packed (ccp) structure to present a face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice or crystal phase. Herein, we demonstrate that Au nanoscale hexagonal stars featuring a hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structure can be synthesized in an aqueous system in the presence of fcc-Au nanospheres as the seeds. The success of this synthesis critically relies on the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to complex with Au3+ ions (the precursor) and the introduction of 2-phospho-L-ascorbic acid trisodium salt (PAATS) as a novel reducing agent to maneuver the reduction kinetics. The use of PAATS favorably promotes the formation of hexagonal stars with uneven surfaces at the top and bottom faces, together with concaved side faces around the edges. By varying the amount of PAATS to fine tune the reduction kinetics, we can adjust the concaveness of the side faces, with a faster reduction rate favoring greater concaveness and a red-shift of the plasmon resonance peak to the near-infrared. For the first time, our results suggest that the phosphate and hydroxyl groups can act synergistically in controlling the morphology of Au nanocrystals. Most significantly, the newly deposited Au atoms can also crystallize in an hcp structure, leading to the observation of a phase transition from fcc to hcp along the growth direction. This new protocol based upon kinetic control can be potentially extended to other noble metals for the facile synthesis of nanocrystals featuring unprecedented structures or phases.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nano letters
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A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)
One or more types of plant seed proteins providing the large amounts of AMINO ACIDS utilized in GERMINATION and SEEDLING growth. As seeds are the major food source from AGRICULTURAL CROPS, seed storage proteins are a major source of DIETARY PROTEINS.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLING. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A catalytic subunit of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex that functions in transcriptional activation of genes by acetylation of nucleosomal HISTONES H4 and H2A, altering nucleosome-DNA interactions and interaction of the modified histones with other activating transcription factors. It may control gene expression changes associated with oncogene and proto-oncogene mediated growth induction, tumor suppressor mediated growth arrest; CELL AGING; APOPTOSIS; and DNA REPAIR. It is polyubiquitinated and degraded during HIV-1 infection through its interaction with the viral TAT PROTEIN.
Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions. They are biodegradable and self-assembling and have potential as DRUG CARRIERS and imaging agents.
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