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The target load concept is an extension of the critical load concept of air pollution inputs to ecosystems. The advantage of target loads over critical loads is that one can define the deposition and the point in time (target year) when the critical (chemical) limit is no longer violated. This information on the timing of recovery requires dynamic modelling. Using a well-documented dynamic model, target loads for acidic deposition were determined for 848 surface waters across Finland, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom for the target year 2050. In the majority of sites (n = 675), the critical ANC-limit was predicted to be achieved by 2050; however, for 127 sites target loads were determined. In addition, 46 sites were infeasible, i.e., even a deposition reduction to zero would not achieve the limit by 2050. The average maximum target load for sulphur was 38% lower than the respective critical load across the study lakes (n = 127). Target loads on a large regional scale can inform effects-based emission reduction policies; the current assessment suggests that reductions beyond the Gothenburg Protocol are required to ensure surface water recovery from acidification by 2050.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science & technology
Nitrogen runoff from fertiliser intensive land uses has become an issue worldwide, contributing to algal blooms, hypoxic waters and aquatic biodiversity losses. This study assessed potential nutrient ...
Inland waters are unique ecosystems offering services and habitat resources upon which many species depend. Despite the importance of, and threats to, inland water, global assessments of protected are...
Dispersed swine wastewater has increasingly aggravated water pollution in China. Anaerobically digested dispersed swine wastewater was targeted and treated by a pilot-scale zoning tidal flow construct...
This study investigated the occurrence of storage mechanisms in biofilm from constructed wetlands (CWs) through respirometric studies and calculated the corresponding heterotrophic growth yields. Resp...
An in-depth understanding of the impacts of surface roughness on road-deposited sediment (RDS) build-up and wash-off is essential for the estimation of surface runoff loads and design of RDS control m...
The reference technique for the conservation of gametes is storage in liquid nitrogen but new vats of nitrogen vapor (storage over liquid nitrogen) or in dry phase (storage in an insulated...
The objective is to obtain plasma samples from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals that have viral loads across the dynamic range of the Aptima HIV-1 assay. Th...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether this new method of taking pictures called Dynamic Area Telethermometry (DAT) might be a good way of looking at patients with cancer that is...
There are no unbiased studies that have analyzed the effects of resistance training with traditional, heavy versus light-moderate loads on muscle, tendon and bone in elderly people. The p...
To answer the research question: "Would image-based modelling result in different clinical decisions as compared to clinical practice guidelines?", we will conduct a randomized controlled ...
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.