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Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been regarded as one of the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage owing to their high energy density and low cost. However, the practical deployment of Li-S batteries has been largely impeded by the low conductivity of sulfur, the shuttle effect of polysulfides and the low areal sulfur loading. Herein, we report the synthesis of uniform Co-Fe mixed metal phosphide (Co-Fe-P) nanocubes with highly interconnected-pore architecture to overcome the main bottlenecks of Li-S batteries. With the highly interconnected-pore architecture, inherently metallic conductivity and polar characteristic, the Co-Fe-P nanocubes not only offer sufficient electrical contact to the insulating sulfur for high sulfur utilization and fast redox reaction kinetics, but also provide abundant adsorption sites for trapping and catalyzing the conversion of lithium polysulfides to suppress the shuttle effect, which is verified by both the comprehensive experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. As a result, the sulfur-loaded Co-Fe-P (S@Co-Fe-P) nanocubes delivered a high discharge capacity of 1243 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C, and excellent cycling stability for 500 cycles with an average capacity decay rate of only 0.043% per cycle at 1 C. Furthermore, the S@Co-Fe-P electrode showed a high areal capacity of 4.6 mAh cm-2 with superior stability when the sulfur loading was increased to 5.5 mg cm-2. More impressively, the prototype soft-package Li-S batteries based on S@Co-Fe-P cathodes also exhibited superior cycling stability with great flexibility, demonstrating their great potential for practical applications.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: ACS nano
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Supramolecular networks that consist of ordered arrangements of organic electron donor linkers (usually ditopic or polytopic organic carboxylates) and metal cations. They can have an extremely high surface area and adjustable pore size that allows for the insertion of other molecules capable of various functions such as catalysis, capture of carbon dioxide, and drug delivery.
Proteins involved in the process of transporting molecules in and out the cell nucleus. Included here are: NUCLEOPORINS, which are membrane proteins that form the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX; KARYOPHERINS, which carry molecules through the nuclear pore complex; and proteins that play a direct role in the transport of karyopherin complexes through the nuclear pore complex.
An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.
Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.
Neutral or negatively charged ligands bonded to metal cations or neutral atoms. The number of ligand atoms to which the metal center is directly bonded is the metal cation's coordination number, and this number is always greater than the regular valence or oxidation number of the metal. A coordination complex can be negative, neutral, or positively charged.