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Antipsychotics are the most important treatment for schizophrenia. However, antipsychotics, particularly olanzapine and clozapine, are associated with severe weight gain/obesity side-effects. Although numerous studies have been carried out to identify the exact mechanisms of antipsychotic-induced weight gain, it is still important to consider other pathways. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling and its associated inflammation pathway is one of the most important pathways involved in regulation of energy balance. In the present study, we examined the role of hypothalamic protein kinase R like endoplasmic reticulum kinase- eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (PERK-eIF2α) signaling and the inflammatory IkappaB kinase β- nuclear factor kappa B (IKKβ-NFκB) signaling pathway in olanzapine-induced weight gain in female rats. In this study, we found that olanzapine significantly activated PERK-eIF2α and IKKβ-NFκB signaling in SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Olanzapine treatment for 8 days in rats was associated with activated PERK-eIF2α signaling and IKKβ-NFκB signaling in the hypothalamus, accompanied by increased food intake and weight gain. Co-treatment with an ER stress inhibitor, 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA), decreased olanzapine-induced food intake and weight gain in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, 4-PBA dose-dependently inhibited olanzapine-induced activated PERK-eIF2α and IKKβ-NFκB signaling in the hypothalamus. These results suggested that hypothalamic ER stress may play an important role in antipsychotic-induced weight gain.
This article was published in the following journal.
To investigate whether rapamycin protects tear production and the ocular surface during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced dry eye syndrome in mice.
This study investigated whether rapamycin has the protective effect on the testis of diabetic rats by regulating autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and oxidative stress.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an intracellular organelle involved in the synthesis and secretion of proteins. The ER stress response, which protects cells from cytotoxic proteins such as unfolded ...
Endothelial dysfunction induced by hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) plays a critical role in vascular pathology. However, little is known about the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) redox homeostasis in H...
Hypertension has complex vascular pathogenesis and therefore the molecular etiology remains poorly elucidated. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), which is a condition of the unfolded/misfolded protei...
Investigate the change in endoplasmic reticulum stress after cancer surgery according to different anaesthetics including propofol and sevoflurane.
The links between systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pre-clinical models make it an interesting potential therapeutic target, but there...
Multiple myeloma cells are dependent on calcium (Ca2+) for their function. Specifically, Ca2+ is required for the function of the endoplasmic reticulum in which proteins, including immuno...
Anhedonia, or loss of interest or pleasure, is a key feature of depression and transdiagnostic construct in psychopathology. Both theory and compelling evidence from preclinical models imp...
Normally, the hormone insulin works to help keep blood sugar normal. However, as a person gains weight, insulin does not work as well and blood sugar tends to be a little higher than norm...
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.
A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.
Subcellular structures found in nerve cell bodies and DENDRITES. They consist of granular endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) and RIBOSOMES.
Adhd Anorexia Depression Dyslexia Mental Health Psychiatry Schizophrenia Stress Mental health, although not being as obvious as physical health, is very important, causing great unhappiness to those affected, causing add...
Endocrine disorders are grouped into two categories: hormone imbalance - when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect...
Stress is caused by your perception of situations around you and then the reaction of your body to them. The automatic stress response to unexpected events is known as 'fight or flight'. Discovered by Walter Cannon in 1932, it is the release of h...