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Exercise has emerged as a powerful variable that can improve cognitive function and delay age-associated cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To determine if protective mechanisms may occur at the transcriptional level, we used microarrays to investigate the relationship between physical activity levels and gene expression patterns in the cognitively intact aged human hippocampus. In parallel, hippocampal gene expression patterns associated with aging and AD were assessed using publicly available microarray data profiling hippocampus from young (20-59 years), cognitively intact aging (73-95 years) and age-matched AD cases. To identify "anti-aging/AD" transcription patterns associated with physical activity, probesets significantly associated with both physical activity and aging/AD were identified and their directions of expression change in each condition were compared. Remarkably, of the 2210 probesets significant in both data sets, nearly 95% showed opposite transcription patterns with physical activity compared with aging/AD. The majority (>70%) of these anti-aging/AD genes showed increased expression with physical activity and decreased expression in aging/AD. Enrichment analysis of the anti-aging/AD genes showing increased expression in association with physical activity revealed strong overrepresentation of mitochondrial energy production and synaptic function, along with axonal function and myelin integrity. Synaptic genes were notably enriched for synaptic vesicle priming, release and recycling, glutamate and GABA signaling, and spine plasticity. Anti-aging/AD genes showing decreased expression in association with physical activity were enriched for transcription-related function (notably negative regulation of transcription). These data reveal that physical activity is associated with a more youthful profile in the hippocampus across multiple biological processes, providing a potential molecular foundation for how physical activity can delay age- and AD-related decline of hippocampal function.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Neurobiology of aging
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Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Pathological conditions (Disorder, SYNDROME, or DISEASE) whose SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS manifest late in the life of an individual.
The expression of a gene in an abnormal place, or at an abnormal time in an organism. Ectopic Gene Expression is often induced artificially by genetic techniques.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.
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Neurology - Central Nervous System (CNS)
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