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Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been reported to induce cytotoxicity in a structure-dependent manner. The toxic effects may be due to the damage of biomembrane integrity and/or the interference of membrane signal pathway. In this study, the damages of fifteen typical OPFRs (chlorinated phosphates, alkyl phosphates, aryl phosphates, and alkoxy phosphates) to mimetic biomembrane were determined by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The molecular structure descriptors that characterized the action mechanisms were screened by stepwise regression. The six molecular descriptors (MATS7e, DLS_05, Mor19m, Mor22v, Mor12v and MATS8m) were screened to study the actions between OPFRs and mimetic biomembrane. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was developed by the partial least squares (PLS) method. Statistical results indicated that the QSAR model had good robustness and mechanism interpretability. The distribution of atomic electronegativities (MATS7e) and atomic masses in three dimensional spaces (Mor19m) were the key factors influencing the actions between OPFRs and simulated biofilms. The compounds with strong electron-withdrawing property could invade the inner layer of membrane and destroy its integrity. High levels of steric hindrance could impair the damage capacity caused by electronegativity. Moreover, drug-like index (DLS_05), spatial structures of particle (Mor22v, Mor12v) and atomic masses (MATS8m) also affected the actions. The results revealed the mechanism of the actions of OPFRs with simulated biofilms and elucidated the key structural characteristics affecting the actions of OPFRs, which could provide theoretical basis for ecological risk assessment of OPFRs.
This article was published in the following journal.
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Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.
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Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.
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