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Aerobic granular sludge membrane bioreactor (AGMBR) has emerged with strong potential to overcome membrane fouling. There have been no extensive studies on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in AGMBR. The present work aimed at conducting an in-depth study of EPS and monitoring fouling development in AGMBR using a 2 factorial design having hydraulic retention time (HRT) and total organic carbon (TOC) as independent variables. HRT was tested at three levels of 6, 8 and 10 h while the TOC levels were 104 ± 13, 189 ± 17, and 266 ± 27 mg/L. AGMBR exhibited high proteins (PN) in the tightly-bound EPS (TB-EPS) resulting in high proteins/polysaccharides (PN/PS) ratios of 2-16. The PN in the LB-EPS was low, ranging from 0.01 to 1.92 mg/g MLVSS, but the range of PN/PS ratio was also of 2-16. Despite the high PN/PS ratio, TMP rise was low. Water jet easily sloughed off the developed membrane cake layer. The elimination of chemicals for membrane cleaning has significant cost savings. TOC had a significant main effect on both the PN and PS components of TB-EPS at α < 0.05. TB-EPS PN increased with increase in TOC. TB-EPS PN decreased as HRT increased from 6 h to 10 h at 104 ± 13 mg/L TOC but the change of HRT from 10 h to 6 h at 266 ± 27 mg/L TOC did not affect TB-EPS PN. The TMP increased with increasing HRT at 104 ± 13 and 266 ± 27 mg/L TOC. An increase in sEPS PN correlated well with increase in membrane fouling (r = 0.581). Three runs performed best: 266 ± 27 mg/L TOC and 10 h HRT; 104 ± 13 mg/L TOC and 6 h HRT; and 266 ± 27 mg/L TOC and 6 h HRT as TMP was below the 50 kPa threshold. AGMBR achieved 98 ± 1%, 99 ± 1%, 52 ± 33% organics degradation, NH-N removal, total nitrogen removal, respectively.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
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A family of gram-negative, asporogenous rods or ovoid cells, aerobic or facultative anaerobic chemoorganotrophs. They are commonly isolated from SOIL, activated sludge, or marine environments.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Membrane limited structures derived from cell membranes and cytoplasmic material, and released into EXTRACELLULAR SPACE. They circulate through the EXTRACELLULAR FLUID and through the peripheral blood in the MICROVASCULATURE where cells, much larger, cannot, thereby affecting a variety of intercellular communication processes.
A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.
Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)