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Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), an important process for converting fixed nitrogen to N, plays an important role in the present-day marine nitrogen cycle. However, little is known about anammox activities in the past, especially in regions that were strongly affected by human activities, evidenced by eutrophication and hypoxia, which promote anammox bacteria growth. In this study, ladderanes have been measured in a sediment core and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the East China Sea (ECS), to reconstruct the anammox record and to evaluate its responses to eutrophication and hypoxia. The detection and distribution of different ladderane lipids in SPM provide additional evidence that ladderanes were mostly produced in the water column and could reflect anammox activities. Summed ladderane content from the core varied between 11 and 300 ng/g dry weight (dw) sediment, with C20--ladderane fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as the predominant compound (5-150 ng/g dw), followed by C20--ladderane FAME (1-110 ng/g dw), C18--ladderane FAME (1-32 ng/g dw) and C18 --ladderane FAME (3-11 ng/g dw). The detection of ladderanes over the last century indicate the existence of anammox in the past. The rapidly increasing trend of ladderanes since the 1960s correlates with an increase in phytoplankton biomarkers (Σ(B + D + A), brassicasterol (B), dinosterol (D) and C alkenones (A)), indicating that eutrophication exacerbated anammox growth. The co-variation between our ladderane record and published records of low-oxygen tolerant foraminiferal microfossils and hypoxia events over the past 60 years suggested that sediment ladderanes are a useful indicator for past changes of oxygen depletion or hypoxia in the ECS.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
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A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.
A country of central Asia, nominally an autonomous region within Communist China. It first came under Chinese control during the Manchu dynasty in 1720 and was generally closed to foreigners until late in the nineteenth century. Tibetans are an ancient race of Mongolian type and their ruler is the Dalai Lama. Buddhism was introduced in the seventh century A.D. and most Tibetans are Buddhists. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
A school of thought and set of moral, ethical, and political teachings usually considered to be founded by Confucius in 6th-5th century B.C. China. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)
The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.
A country in southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, and east of Vietnam. The capital is Manila.