Advertisement

Topics

Real-farming emissions of reactive nitrogen - Necessities and challenges.

08:00 EDT 27th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Real-farming emissions of reactive nitrogen - Necessities and challenges."

Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is both a principal factor regulating growth in biological systems and a significant pollutant for the environment. The objective of this paper is to reflect on the challenges of the nutrient management related to and priorities needed to clarify how Nr is employed appropriately whilst striving to mitigate emissions at the same time. To create orientation, valid data are needed reflecting the real-farming emissions (RFE) from individual farms to assess what is needed to balance partly contradicting goals, and to bridge the gap between current and envisaged levels. Furthermore, knowledge is required of which tools and measures are at the farmer's disposal to mitigate Nr emissions. Finally and of utmost importance, the farm management is in need of action knowledge, i.e. knowing how to select the most appropriate and cost-effective tools and measures for the specific conditions on each farm, while taking the possible impacts of their implementation on the balance between Nr-related productivity and threats into account. Dealing with such a complex issue requires a systemic approach, considering the farm system not only as a one-compartment model (1st scale) with quantifiable Nr inputs and outputs at the farm gate but as divisible into sub-systems (2nd scale). The Nr-flow through the sub-systems: feed, livestock, manure and utilised land area, represents an inner-farm Nr-cycle. Each sub-system can be further sub-divided into sub-sub-systems (3rd scale) such as feeding groups within livestock, which could be differentiated in individual animals (4th scale). This approach enables to determine where (and to what extent) nutrients may be allocated more effectively and more cost-efficiently. The allocation of Nr resources between sub-units within the respective sub-systems determines the efficiency in the use of Nr and thus the proportion of Nr contributing either to an increase in productivity or to Nr-related environmental pollution. Quantifying the N-flows through sub-systems of a farm on the 2nd scale is the starting point for benchmarking; providing orientation for the regulation of processes both inside and outside the farm system. It creates target figures for the farm management while identifying the gap between the current ranking level of the farm and its potential rank. Improving the recycling of Nr throughout the whole farm system and increasing the efficiency in the use of Nr on the 3rd and 4th scale are seen as major opportunities for the farm management to balance the trade-offs without comprising productivity. It is concluded that the lack of benchmark RFE values in relation to the amount of food and feed produced can be seen as one of the main barriers in the fight to mitigate environmental Nr emissions from agricultural processes. If benchmarking has not been established, the farm management lacks orientation regarding the target figures it should aim at. Without target figures it is not possible to formulate concise working hypotheses regarding the most effective and cost-efficient use of means that are to the farmer's disposal as well as strategies for an improved allocation of resources in a farm specific context.

Affiliation

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Journal of environmental management
ISSN: 1095-8630
Pages: 9-18

Links

DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [12613 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Plant defences mediate interactions between herbivory and the direct foliar uptake of atmospheric reactive nitrogen.

Reactive nitrogen from human sources (e.g., nitrogen dioxide, NO) is taken up by plant roots following deposition to soils, but can also be assimilated by leaves directly from the atmosphere. Leaf upt...

The impact of long-term organic farming on soil-derived greenhouse gas emissions.

Agricultural practices contribute considerably to emissions of greenhouse gases. So far, knowledge on the impact of organic compared to non-organic farming on soil-derived nitrous oxide (NO) and metha...

On-Board Sensor-Based NO Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles.

Real-world nitrogen oxides (NO) emissions were estimated using on-board sensor readings from 72 heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) equipped with Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system in Californi...

Different agricultural practices affect soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous in Kilombero -Tanzania.

Converting natural and semi-natural vegetation to agriculture is currently the most significant land use change at global scale. This conversion leads to changes in soil nutrients and increased CO emi...

Electrons transfer determined greenhouse gas emissions in enhanced nitrogen-removal constructed wetlands with different carbon sources and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios.

A constructed wetland (CW) was established to explore the influence of carbon addition (glucose or sodium acetate) on nitrogen removal and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at chemical oxygen demand to n...

Clinical Trials [3077 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Cryogenic Preservation of Spermatozoa

The reference technique for the conservation of gametes is storage in liquid nitrogen but new vats of nitrogen vapor (storage over liquid nitrogen) or in dry phase (storage in an insulated...

Inhaled Apocynin Decreases Reactive Oxygen Species Concentrations in Exhaled Breath Condensate in Mild Asthmatics

The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of inhaled apocynin on ROS (reactive oxygen species) and NOS (reactive nitrogen species) synthesis in 10 nonsmoking mild asthmatics. Effec...

Neonatal Hearing Screening at Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Hearing loss is one of the most common congenital anomalies . It has been shown to be greater than that of most other diseases and syndromes (eg, phenylketonuria, sickle cell disease) scre...

The Impact of Low Calorie and Low Nitrogen Parenteral Nutrition Support on the Clinical Outcome of Postoperative Patients

The study is designed to investigate the influence of parenteral nutrition (PN) with low nitrogen and calorie supply on the clinical outcome of patients after an operation compared to that...

A Trial Examining the Treatment of Common Warts With Combination Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) and Cantharidin

The purpose of the study was to see if liquid nitrogen, a commonly used treatment for warts, is more effective if it is used alone, or if it is more effective if combined with cantharidin,...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.

Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.

A metabolic excess of REACTIVE NITROGEN SPECIES, including NITRIC OXIDE and PEROXYNITRITE, that leads to damaging effects of oxidation and nitration.

Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.

The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.

Advertisement
Quick Search
Advertisement
Advertisement

 


DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topic

Biological Therapy
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...


Searches Linking to this Article