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Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide (H S) and methyl mercaptan (CH SH) are the main components of oral malodor, and are produced as the end products of the proteolytic processes of oral microorganisms. The main pathway of proteolysis is the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids by Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria may promote VSC production by Gram-negative anaerobes by cleaving sugar chains from glycoproteins and thus providing proteins. A large variety of bacteria within the oral microbiota are thought to be involved in the complex phenomenon of halitosis. Oral microbiota associated with a lack of oral malodor, oral microbiota associated with severe and H S-dominant oral malodor, and oral microbiota associated with severe and CH SH-dominant oral malodor have been distinguished through molecular approaches using the 16S rRNA gene. Pathological halitosis may primarily be addressed through treatment of causative diseases. In all cases, plaque control is the basis of oral malodor control, and dentifrices, mouthwashes, and functional foods play a supplementary role in addition to brushing. Recently, the use of natural ingredients in products tends to be preferred for reasons such as preventing increased resistance to antibiotics and the side effects of some chemical agents. In addition, probiotics and vaccines are expected to offer new strategies for improving the oral conditions through mechanisms other than antibacterial agents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular oral microbiology
The objective of this study was to compare the effects of three tongue hygiene regimens on oral malodor.
To evaluate the efficacy of a mouthwash containing stabilized chlorine dioxide in reducing oral malodor when used as an adjunct to tooth brushing compared with the use of a placebo mouthwash.
The objective of this independent, double-blind clinical study was to assess the efficacy of a new Dual Zinc plus Arginine dentifrice (Colgate-Palmolive Co., New York, NY, USA) containing zinc (zinc o...
The tongue is one of the primary sources of halitosis. The manual or mechanical removal of biofilm is known to decrease oral malodor.
Labor is induced in 20-30% of maternities with an increasing trend of use. Labor induction with oral misoprostol is associated with reduced risk of Cesarean births and has a comparable safety and effe...
The purpose of this Study is to assess the efficacy of two ClōSYS Oral Rinse products in human subjects in controlling oral malodor in partial fulfillment of the requirements for American...
The purpose of this Study is to assess the efficacy of two ClōSYS Oral Rinse products in human subjects in controlling oral malodor in partial fulfillment of the requirements for recognit...
Oral malodor is a common condition. In most cases this condition results from the proteolytic activity of anaerobic oral bacteria. These bacteria produce volatile sulfide compounds which a...
This study will assess changes in oral malodor and other factors in response to using a two-step toothpaste oral hygiene relative to a sensitivity whitening toothpaste.
The aim of this experiment is to investigate the effect of Miswak on oral malodor and to determine whether this effect -if present- is the result of the mechanical action of Miswak or the ...
A growth differentiation factor that is secreted in response to cell stress and in response to MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION. In addition growth differentiation factor 15 demonstrates a diverse array of biological properties including the induction of cartilage formation, the inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor proliferation, and the induction of neuronal migration.
A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.
A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...