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Autophagy is a constitutive and cytoprotective catabolic process. Aberrations in autophagy lead to a multitude of degenerative disorders, with neurodegeneration being one of the most widely studied autophagy-related disorders. While the field has largely been focusing on the cytosolic constituents and processes of autophagy, recent studies are increasingly appreciating the role of chromatin modifications and epigenetic regulation in autophagy maintenance. Autophagy has been implicated in the regulation of neurogenesis, and disruption of neurogenesis in response to psychological stress is a proximal risk factor for development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). In this review, we will discuss the regulation of autophagy in normal neurogenesis as well as during chronic psychological stress, focusing on the epigenetic control of autophagy in these contexts, and also highlight the lacunae in our understanding of this process. The systematic study of these regulatory mechanisms will provide a novel therapeutic strategy, based on the use epigenetic regulators of autophagy to enhance neurogenesis and potentially alleviate stress-related behavioral disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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A class II histone deacetylase that removes acetyl groups from N-terminal LYSINES of HISTONE H2A; HISTONE H2B; HISTONE H3; and HISTONE H4. It plays a critical role in EPIGENETIC REPRESSION and regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, as well as CELL MOTILITY through deacetylation of TUBULIN. It also targets misfolded proteins for clearance by AUTOPHAGY when MOLECULAR CHAPERONE-mediated folding is overwhelmed.
Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
An autophagy related protein that is similar to UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYME E1. It functions in CYTOPLASM to VACUOLE transport (Cvt) and AUTOPHAGY by activating ATG12 PROTEIN for its conjugation with ATG5 PROTEIN, as well as the conjugation of ATG8 FAMILY PROTEINS with phosphatidylethanolamine for ATG8 association to Cvt vesicles and AUTOPHAGOSOME membranes. It is also required for the nitrogen starvation response in yeast, MITOPHAGY; and autophagic cell death induced by CASPASE 8 inhibition.
Treatment to improve one's health condition by using techniques that can reduce PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS; or both.
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The development and maintenance of an organism is orchestrated by a set of chemical reactions that switch parts of the genome off and on at strategic times and locations. Epigenetics is the study of these reactions and the factors that influence them. ...