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Memory encoding is a critical process for memory function, which is foundational for cognitive functioning including reading, and has been extensively studied using subsequent memory tasks. Research in adults using such tasks indicates the participation of visual and cognitive-control systems in remembered versus forgotten words. However, given the known developmental trajectories of these systems, the functional neuroanatomy of memory encoding in children may be different than in adults. We examined brain activation for silent word reading and checkerboard viewing during an event-related reading task in 8-12 year-old children. Results indicate greater activation for checkerboard viewing than lexical processing in early visual regions, as well as for lexical processing versus checkerboard viewing in regions in left sensorimotor mouth, cingulo-opercular and dorsal-attention networks. Greater activation for remembered than forgotten words was observed in bilateral visual system and left lateralized regions within the ventral- and dorsal-attention, cingulo-opercular and fronto-parietal networks. These findings suggest a relatively mature reliance on the cognitive-control system, but greater reliance on the visual system in children when viewing words subsequently remembered. The location of regions with greater activity for remembered words reinforces the involvement of the attention and cognitive-control systems in subsequent memory in reading.
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Name: Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)
Visual processing in the primate brain is highly organized along the ventral visual pathway, although it is still unclear how categorical selectivity emerges in this system. While many theories have a...
The formation of resting-state functional networks in infancy has been reported to be strongly impacted by very preterm birth. Studies in childhood and adolescence have largely focused on language pro...
We investigated the neural correlates of accented speech processing (ASP) with an fMRI study that overcame prior limitations in this line of research: we preserved intelligibility by using two regiona...
Maternal reading fluency is associated with functional connectivity between the child's future reading network and regions related to executive functions and language processing in preschool-age children.
Reading is an acquired skill that relies on cognitive-control and language abilities. Home reading environment has been positively correlated with activation in parietal-temporal-occipital association...
The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) is a measure of cognitive flexibility for children, which requires rule-use and shifting. Demographic, cognitive, regional cortical thickness, and genetic varia...
Despite the fact that a substantial number of school age children struggle with both reading and math acquisition, the brain mechanisms of the overlapping aspects of reading and math skill...
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A growing body of research has highlighted the critical importance of children's self-regulation and executive function skills for their school performance as well as for their later life ...
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A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...