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Given that external contamination must be considered in hair analysis, there is still a demand for reliable tools to differentiate between incorporation of drugs into the hair as a result of drug consumption and of the hair shaft by external contamination. With the aim of establishing alternative discrimination parameters, some of the hydroxy metabolites of cocaine i.e., para- and meta-hydroxycocaine and para- and meta-hydroxybenzoylecgonine were measured together with cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, and norcocaine in five seized street cocaine samples and in hair samples from different cohorts: cohort 1 (in vivo external contamination study, n = 28), cohort 2 (individuals with self-reported cocaine use, n = 92), and cohort 3 (individuals with suspected cocaine use or contamination, n = 198). Statistical evaluation of the data of cohort 1 and 2 using ROC curves yielded metabolic ratios indicating cocaine use. Based on these results, a decision workflow was established for the discrimination between cocaine use and external contamination. The power of this approach was finally statistically validated across the different cohorts.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of analytical toxicology
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To evaluate the intraoperative hemodynamics and medication requirements of cocaine-positive patients compared to matched cocaine-negative controls.
Hair analysis is a suitable way to discriminate between coca chewers and consumers of manufactured cocaine using the coca alkaloids hygrine (HYG) and cuscohygrine (CUS) as markers. In the present prel...
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The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
SMOKING of COCAINE.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Any of several South American shrubs of the Erythroxylon genus (and family) that yield COCAINE; the leaves are chewed with alum for CNS stimulation.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...