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Non-experimental studies of seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness in older adults have reported 40-60% reductions in all-cause mortality associated with vaccination, potentially due to confounding by frailty. We restricted our cohort to initiators of preventive drug classes (statins, antiglaucoma drugs, and beta-blockers) as an approach to reduce confounding by frailty by excluding frail older adults who would not initiate these drugs. Using a random 20% sample of U.S. Medicare beneficiaries, we framed our study as a series of nonrandomized "trials" comparing vaccinated beneficiaries with unvaccinated beneficiaries who had an outpatient visit for the five influenza seasons from 2010-2015. We pooled data across seasons and used standardized-mortality-ratio-weighted Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between influenza vaccination and all-cause mortality before influenza season, expecting a null association. Weighted hazard ratios in the preventive drug initiators were generally closer to the null than those in the non-restricted cohort. Restriction to statin initiators with an uncensored approach resulted in a weighted hazard ratio of 1.00 (95%
0.84,1.19), and several others were above 0.95. Restricting analyses to initiators of preventive drug classes can reduce confounding by frailty in this setting, but further work is required to determine the most appropriate criteria to use.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of epidemiology
Recent studies have suggested an important role of de novo mutations (DNMs) in neuropsychiatric disorders. As DNMs are not subject to elimination due to evolutionary pressure, they are likely to have ...
Little is known about the prevalence and determinants of drug use among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Ireland. The aims of this study were to measure the prevalence of recreational drug use among...
Millions of individuals worldwide are living with cancer and have remained disease-free for more than 5 years. These individuals are considered to be cancer survivors. The advent of new targeted thera...
A tuberculosis (TB) model that accounts for heterogeneity in host susceptibility to tuberculosis is proposed, with the aim of investigating the implications this may have for the effectiveness of publ...
Using a proprietary insurance health claims database, Eli Lilly and Company has contracted with an external party to conduct a retrospective cohort study of health claims for the time peri...
The aim of this project is to investigate whether enhancing sleep intensity locally in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) can counteract a deterioration of cognitive control and therefore the pre...
This study evaluates the effect of intermittent calorie restriction versus continued calorie restriction on weight loss, gene expression profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue and abdomina...
The aim of the study is to determine if time-restricted feeding (TRF) is an effective dietary strategy to weight loss after 8 weeks intervention. TRF will be compared with an intervention ...
This is a phase I/II study of MLN9708 for the prophylaxis of chronic graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Duri...
The science concerned with the benefit and risk of drugs used in populations and the analysis of the outcomes of drug therapies. Pharmacoepidemiologic data come from both clinical trials and epidemiological studies with emphasis on methods for the detection and evaluation of drug-related adverse effects, assessment of risk vs benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns of drug utilization, the cost-effectiveness of specific drugs, methodology of postmarketing surveillance, and the relation between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines. (Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1992;1(1); J Pharmacoepidemiol 1990;1(1))
A technique to generate restriction maps from single large DNA molecules by spreading the DNA onto a glass surface, digesting with DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES, staining with FLUORESCENT DYES, and visualizing the DNA cleavage sites by FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY.
Systems consisting of two enzymes, a modification methylase and a restriction endonuclease. They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. The methylase adds methyl groups to adenine or cytosine residues in the same target sequence that constitutes the restriction enzyme binding site. The methylation renders the target site resistant to restriction, thereby protecting DNA against cleavage.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of...
Swine Flu - H1N1 influenza - H7N9
Swine flu is the common name given to a relatively new strain of influenza (flu) that caused a flu pandemic in 2009-2010. It is also referred to as H1N1 influenza (because it is the H1N1 strain of virus). The H1N1 flu virus will be one of the main vi...