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Clinical and research interest in delirium has been rising over the last 15 years. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) publication on delirium is a state-of-the-art synthesis of the field, and the first UK guideline since 2010. There is new guidance around delirium detection, particularly in recommending the 4 'A's Test (4AT). The 4AT has the advantage of being brief, embeds and operationalises cognitive testing, and is scalable with little training. The guidelines highlight the importance of non-pharmacological management for all hospital presentations involving the spectrum of cognitive disorders (delirium, dementia but at risk of delirium, delirium superimposed on dementia). Pharmacotherapy has a minimal role, but specific indications (e.g. intractable distress) are discussed. Advances in delirium research, education and policy, have come together with steady changes in the sociocultural context in which healthcare systems look after older people with cognitive impairment. However, there remains a gap between desired and actual clinical practice, one which might be bridged by re-engaging with compassionate, patient-centred care. In this respect, these SIGN guidelines offer a key resource.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Age and ageing
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Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
An acute organic mental disorder induced by cessation or reduction in chronic alcohol consumption. Clinical characteristics include CONFUSION; DELUSIONS; vivid HALLUCINATIONS; TREMOR; agitation; insomnia; and signs of autonomic hyperactivity (e.g., elevated blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils, and diaphoresis). This condition may occasionally be fatal. It was formerly called delirium tremens. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1175)
The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.
A form of DELIRIUM which occurs after GENERAL ANESTHESIA.
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