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has become a serious threat to human health. In addition to having increased antibiotic resistance, the bacterium is a master at adapting to its host by evading almost every facet of the immune system, the so-called immune evasion proteins. Many of these immune evasion proteins target neutrophils, the most important immune cells in clearing infections. The neutrophil attacks pathogens via a plethora of strategies. Therefore, it is no surprise that has evolved numerous immune evasion strategies at almost every level imaginable. In this review we discuss step by step the aspects of neutrophil-mediated killing of , such as neutrophil activation, migration to the site of infection, bacterial opsonization, phagocytosis, and subsequent neutrophil-mediated killing. After each section we discuss how evasion molecules are able to resist the neutrophil attack of these different steps. To date, around 40 immune evasion molecules of are known, but its repertoire is still expanding due to the discovery of new evasion proteins and the addition of new functions to already identified evasion proteins. Interestingly, because the different parts of neutrophil attack are redundant, the evasion molecules display redundant functions as well. Knowing how and with which proteins is evading the immune system is important in understanding the pathophysiology of this pathogen. This knowledge is crucial for the development of therapeutic approaches that aim to clear staphylococcal infections.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Microbiology spectrum
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Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.
A B7 antigen subtype that inhibits the costimulation of T-cell activation, proliferation, cytokine production and development of cytotoxicity. The over expression of this protein in a variety of tumor cell types suggests its role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
An inhibitory B7 antigen that contains V-type and C2 type immunoglobulin domains. It has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN and provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses. It is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.
Regeneration of normal immune function after immune depleting procedures or infections (e.g., HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION). Delayed and incomplete reconstitution of the ADAPTIVE IMMUNE system in particular involving T-CELLS is associated with increase or relapse of infection.
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
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