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Altered parathyroid gland biology in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major contributor to chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). This disorder is associated with an increased risk of bone disorders, vascular calcification, and cardiovascular events. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is primarily regulated by the ionized calcium concentration as well as the phosphate concentration in the extracellular fluid and vitamin D. The metabolic disturbances in patients with CKD lead to alterations in the parathyroid gland biology. A hallmark of CKD is secondary hyperparathyroidism, characterized by an increased production and release of PTH, reduced expression of calcium-sensing and vitamin D receptors on the surface of parathyroid cells, and hyperplasia and hypertrophy of these cells. These alterations happen on different timescales and influence each other, thereby triggering a cascade of negative and positive feedback loops in a highly complex manner. Due to this complexity, mathematical models are a useful tool to break down the patterns of the multidimensional cascade of processes enabling the detailed study of subsystems. Here, we introduce a comprehensive mathematical model that includes the major adaptive mechanisms governing the production, secretion, and degradation of PTH in patients with CKD on hemodialysis. Combined with models for medications targeting the parathyroid gland, it provides a ready-to-use tool to explore treatment strategies. While the model is of particular interest for use in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, it has the potential to be applicable to other clinical scenarios such as primary hyperparathyroidism or hypo- and hypercalcemia.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physiological reports
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A naphthalene derivative and CALCIMIMETIC AGENT that increases the sensitivity of PARATHYROID GLAND calcium-sensing receptors to serum calcium. This action reduces parathyroid hormone secretion and decreases serum calcium in the treatment of PARATHYROID DISEASES.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
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A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE due to parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. It is characterized by the combination of HYPERCALCEMIA, phosphaturia, elevated renal 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis, and increased BONE RESORPTION.
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