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Beyond PD-1 Immunotherapy in Malignant Melanoma.

08:00 EDT 29th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Beyond PD-1 Immunotherapy in Malignant Melanoma."

For many years, the standard therapy for malignant melanoma was based mainly on surgical resection. Unfortunately, this treatment is curative only in the early localized stage of this malignancy. The metastatic stage of malignant melanoma still remains a huge therapeutic challenge. Despite the many new therapeutic options that have become available over the last years, there is a constant need for safer and more effective treatment modalities. There has been a dynamic development of various anti-cancer immunotherapies directed against new molecular targets. A number of clinical trials are currently being conducted to confirm their effectiveness and safety. In this review of the literature, we summarize the contemporary knowledge on promising new immunotherapies beyond the currently available treatment options for malignant melanoma, including oncolytic immunotherapy, selective inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenease, anti-PD-(L)1 (programmed death ligand 1) drugs, immune checkpoint protein LAG-3 antibodies, inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and inhibitors of B7-H3.

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Dermatology and therapy
ISSN: 2193-8210
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

An unpigmented malignant melanoma. It is an anaplastic melanoma consisting of cells derived from melanoblasts but not forming melanin. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)

Tumors of the iris characterized by increased pigmentation of melanocytes. Iris nevi are composed of proliferated melanocytes and are associated with neurofibromatosis and malignant melanoma of the choroid and ciliary body. Malignant melanoma of the iris often originates from preexisting nevi.

A cellular subtype of malignant melanoma. It is a pigmented lesion composed of melanocytes occurring on sun-exposed skin, usually the face and neck. The melanocytes are commonly multinucleated with a "starburst" appearance. It is considered by many to be the in situ phase of lentigo maligna melanoma.

Found in large amounts in the plasma and urine of patients with malignant melanoma. It is therefore used in the diagnosis of melanoma and for the detection of postoperative metastases. Cysteinyldopa is believed to be formed by the rapid enzymatic hydrolysis of 5-S-glutathionedopa found in melanin-producing cells.

Clinically atypical nevi (usually exceeding 5 mm in diameter and having variable pigmentation and ill defined borders) with an increased risk for development of non-familial cutaneous malignant melanoma. Biopsies show melanocytic dysplasia. Nevi are clinically and histologically identical to the precursor lesions for melanoma in the B-K mole syndrome. (Stedman, 25th ed)

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