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The test of variables of attention (TOVA) is a continuous performance test commonly used as an aid for diagnosis of ADHD and assessment of treatment response. It has been studied and standardized in both children and adults. As a repetitive measurement of treatment efficacy, used both in research and in the clinic, it's important to disprove a practice effect. A retrospective cohort analysis was done, using only the placebo-arm participants from two different randomized, multicenter, double-blind clinical trials on the efficacy of a non-stimulant (metadoxine-XR). In order to reveal the practice effects, only the participants that showed no placebo effect (< 25% improvement), in the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-investigator rated (CAARS-Inv), the gold standard, were included. Demographic data, CAARS-Inv baseline and TOVA results during each visit were recorded and analyzed. Ninety-one participants from two studies were pooled (2014 n = 24, 2016 n = 67). They did not differ significantly in any demographic parameter, most side effect frequencies, and CAARS-Inv baseline scores. The baseline TOVA performances demonstrated similarity in the degree of inattention, variability, impulsivity, and response time. The TOVA scores were not altered significantly between visits, as assessed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. No significant differences were detected between the TOVA baseline-to-endpoint scores as assessed by paired t test. No practice effects were detected, in both clinical trials, suggesting that the results of the TOVA are likely to represent genuine changes in attentional performance. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders
The functioning of attention is complex, a primordial function in several cognitive processes and of great interest to neuropsychology. The Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A) is a continuous com...
Smith, Floerke, and Thomas (2016) demonstrated that learning by repeated testing, or retrieval practice, reduced stress-related memory impairment when compared to learning by repeatedly studying mater...
Selective attention has been found to decline with aging, possibly depending on the sensory modality through which targets and distractors are presented. We investigated the capacity of older adults t...
Divergent effects of brief contemplative practices in response to an acute stressor: A randomized controlled trial of brief breath awareness, loving-kindness, gratitude or an attention control practice.
Mindfulness practices are increasingly being utilized as a method for cultivating well-being. The term mindfulness is often used as an umbrella for a variety of different practices and many mindfulnes...
Diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is based in clinical data, radiological variables and invasive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing, such the lumbar infusion test. Several ne...
This study will compare two tests for attention deficit disorder (ADD) - the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) and the NIH Test of Attention - to see if they produce the same results. ...
Background: There is a paucity of data as to the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on young adults who do not have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The existing data is equiv...
The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of yoga training on rhinitis symptoms and cytokines in allergic rhinitis patients. Twenty-seven allergic rhinitis patients, aged 18-45 ...
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuro-developmental/behavioral disorders among adolescents. Sport and physical activity seem to play a major role ...
The purpose of this study is to test the therapeutic effects of a computerized attention training for patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The primary aim is to determine if a computerized...
A projective test used to evaluate a broad range of personality variables including pathology of thought and perception. The subject's responses to inkblot prints are scored along with subjective interpretation by the test administrator.
Skills and strategies, unrelated to the traits a test is intended to measure, that may increase test takers' scores -- may include the effects of coaching or experience in taking tests. (ERIC Thesaurus)
A performance test based on forced MOTOR ACTIVITY on a rotating rod, usually by a rodent. Parameters include the riding time (seconds) or endurance. Test is used to evaluate balance and coordination of the subjects, particular in experimental animal models for neurological disorders and drug effects.
Personality evaluation based on the scoring of several variables as a result of the subject's responses in perceiving 47 inkblot plates.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention. Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...