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Increased reaction time variability (RTV) is one of the most replicable behavioral correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, this may not be specific to ADHD but a more general marker of psychopathology. Here we compare RT variability in individuals with ADHD and those with other childhood internalizing and externalizing conditions both in terms of standard (i.e., the standard deviation of reaction time) and alternative indices that capture low-frequency oscillatory patterns in RT variations over time thought to mark periodic lapses of attention in ADHD. A total of 667 participants (6-12 years old) were classified into non-overlapping diagnostic groups consisting of children with fear disorders (n = 91), distress disorders (n = 56), ADHD (n = 103), oppositional defiant or conduct disorder (ODD/CD; n = 40) and typically developing controls (TDC; n = 377). We used a simple two-choice reaction time task to measure reaction time. The strength of oscillations in RTs across the session was extracted using spectral analyses. Higher RTV was present in ADHD compared to all other disorder groups, effects that were equally strong across all frequency bands. Interestingly, we found that lower RTV to characterize ODD/CD relative to TDC, a finding that was more pronounced at lower frequencies. In general, our data support RTV as a specific marker of ADHD. RT variation across time in ADHD did not show periodicity in a specific frequency band, not supporting that ADHD RTV is the product of spontaneous periodic lapses of attention. Low-frequency oscillations may be particularly useful to differentiate ODD/CD from TDC.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders
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A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-IV)
A propylamine derivative and selective ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITOR that is used in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER.
A methylphenidate derivative, DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITOR and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULANT that is used in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER.
A dextroamphetamine drug precursor that also functions as a CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULANT and DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITOR and is used in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
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