Advertisement

Topics

The role of the circadian system in the etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD: time to redefine ADHD?

07:00 EST 1st March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "The role of the circadian system in the etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD: time to redefine ADHD?"

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly associated with the delayed sleep phase disorder, a circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder, which is prevalent in 73-78% of children and adults with ADHD. Besides the delayed sleep phase disorder, various other sleep disorders accompany ADHD, both in children and in adults. ADHD is either the cause or the consequence of sleep disturbances, or they may have a shared etiological and genetic background. In this review, we present an overview of the current knowledge on the relationship between the circadian rhythm, sleep disorders, and ADHD. We also discuss the various pathways explaining the connection between ADHD symptoms and delayed sleep, ranging from genetics, behavioral aspects, daylight exposure, to the functioning of the eye. The treatment options discussed are focused on improvement of sleep quality, quantity, and phase-resetting, by means of improving sleep hygiene, chronotherapy, treatment of specific sleep disorders, and by strengthening certain neuronal networks involved in sleep, e.g., by sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback. Ultimately, the main question is addressed: whether ADHD needs to be redefined. We propose a novel view on ADHD, where a part of the ADHD symptoms are the result of chronic sleep disorders, with most evidence for the delayed circadian rhythm as the underlying mechanism. This substantial subgroup should receive treatment of the sleep disorder in addition to ADHD symptom treatment.

Affiliation

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders
ISSN: 1866-6647
Pages: 5-19

Links

DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [29095 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Circadian rhythms and the molecular clock in cardiovascular biology and disease.

The Earth turns on its axis every 24 h; almost all life on the planet has a mechanism - circadian rhythmicity - to anticipate the daily changes caused by this rotation. The molecular clocks that con...

Circadian regulation of depression: a role for serotonin.

Synchronizing circadian (24 h) rhythms in physiology and behavior with the environmental light-dark cycle is critical for maintaining optimal health. Dysregulation of the circadian system increases su...

Time Reproduction Deficits at Young Adult Follow-Up in Childhood ADHD: The Role of Persistence of Disorder and Executive Functioning.

No studies have examined if time reproduction deficits exist in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by adulthood. We followed 131 ADHD and 71 community control (CC) cases for...

The role of dopamine in mood disorders and the associated changes in circadian rhythms and sleep-wake cycle.

Dopamine is primarily produced in the substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmentum area (VTA) in the brain. It plays a well-established role in the motor control, reward, mood regulation and addict...

The role of glutamate receptors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: From physiology to disease.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents, which is characterized by behavioral problems such as attention deficit, hyperactiv...

Clinical Trials [9790 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Gut Microbiome and Serum Metabolome Alterations in ADHD Patients

Host-microbe interactions play a key role in brain development and function and in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a hetero...

Melatonin for Migraine Prevention

The circadian system with its centre in the hypothalamus is involved in migraine pathophysiology. Whether it plays a pivotal role is not clarified. The investigators postulate that a desta...

Emotional Dysregulation in Adult ADHD.

Attention deficit disorder in adults with or without hyperactivity (ADHD) is a common disorder, affecting around 3% of the population. ADHD increases the risk of psychiatric disorders (moo...

Neuroendocrine Substrates, Candidate Genes and Endophenotypes in ADHD

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. In recent years, some researchers have become interested in analyzing ...

Methylphenidate in ADHD With Trichotillomania

This study will evaluate the safety and effectiveness of methylphenidate in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with both ADHD and trichotillomania. ...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.

Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.

A broad category of proteins that regulate the CIRCADIAN RHYTHM of an organism. Included here are proteins that transmit intracellular and intercellular signals in a chronological manner along with proteins that sense light and time-dependent changes in the environment such as the PHOTOPERIOD.

Variously described as a vasculopathy, endovasculitis, or occlusive arteriopathy, this condition occurs in a benign cutaneous form and a lethal multiorgan systemic variant. It is characterized by a narrowing and occlusion of the lumen of small to medium-sized blood vessels, leading to ischemia and infarction in the involved organ systems. The etiology and pathophysiology are unknown.

A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that positively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and is a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The protein also has a role in neuron cell survival and differentiation in that loss of function mutations of its gene result in the mouse phenotype referred to as the STAGGERER MOUSE.

Advertisement
Quick Search
Advertisement
Advertisement

 


DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topics

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a group of behavioural symptoms that include inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Attention deficit disorder (ADD) is a sub-type of ADHD - symptoms of ADHD include: a short attenti...

Pediatrics
Pediatrics is the general medicine of childhood. Because of the developmental processes (psychological and physical) of childhood, the involvement of parents, and the social management of conditions at home and at school, pediatrics is a specialty. With ...


Searches Linking to this Article