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Proanthocyanidins are phytonutrients formed by oligomerization or polymerization of subunits catechin, epicatechin, and their gallic acid esters. Proanthocyanidins are a component of many plants and thus form an integral part of the human diet. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins are currently marketed as medicinal products that target vascular disorders and chronic pathological conditions, many of which are age-associated. Proanthocyanidins are also characterized by their effects on energy homeostasis. Not dissimilar to their chemically synthesized counterparts, naturally extracted proanthocyanidins act via inhibition of lipases, stimulation of energy expenditure, or suppression of appetite. Here we review the current knowledge-base and highlight challenges and future impacts regarding involvement of proanthocyanidins in global lipid metabolism, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms and pathological conditions that progress with aging.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)
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A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
Pharmacological activities at the molecular level of DRUGS and other exogenous compounds that are used to treat DISEASES and affect normal BIOCHEMISTRY.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.
Benign disorder of infants and children caused by proliferation of HISTIOCYTES, macrophages found in tissues. These histiocytes, usually lipid-laden non-Langerhans cells, form multiple yellow-red nodules most often in the skin, the eye, and sometimes in the viscera. Patients appear to have normal lipid metabolism and are classified as a normolipemic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
Vascular relates to blood vessels (Oxford Medical Dictionary) and can be used to describe the supply of blood, a disease affecting the blood vessels or molecules associated with these structures. For example, <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->atherosclerosis ...