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Eukaryotic genomes are replicated under the control of a highly sophisticated program during the restricted time period corresponding to S phase. The most widely used replication timing assays, which are performed on populations of millions of cells, suggest that most of the genome is synchronously replicated on homologous chromosomes. We investigated the stochastic nature of this temporal program, by comparing the precise replication times of allelic loci within single vertebrate cells progressing through S phase at six loci replicated from very early to very late. We show that replication timing is strictly controlled for the three loci replicated in the first half of S phase. Out of the three loci replicated in the second part of S phase, two present a significantly more stochastic pattern. Surprisingly, we find that the locus replicated at the very end of S phase, presents stochasticity similar to those replicated in early S phase. We suggest that the richness of loci in efficient origins of replication, which decreases from early- to late-replicating regions, and the strength of interaction with the nuclear lamina may underlie the variation of timing control during S phase.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Nucleic acids research
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A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
A single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is found in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. It is required for DNA REPLICATION; DNA REPAIR; and GENETIC RECOMBINATION.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Immunoassay - ELISA
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Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...