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Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infection is associated with a variety of human diseases. Previous studies indicate GAS infection leads to RAW264.7 cell death, but the mechanism is unclear. Here, analyzing the timing of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and using mitochondrial ROS scavenger, we found the wild type GAS-induced RAW264.7 cell death was associated with mitochondrial ROS. The wild type GAS infection could activate glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Inhibition of GSK-3β activity by lithium chloride or decreasing GSK-3β expression by lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA for GSK-3β could not only decrease the wild type GAS-induced mitochondrial ROS generation, mitochondria damage and cell death, but also reduced GAS intracellular replication. Streptolysin S (SLS), a GAS toxin, played the important role on GAS-induced macrophage death. Compared to the wild type GAS with its isogenic sagB mutant (SLS mutant)-infected macrophages, we found sagB mutant infection caused less mitochondrial ROS generation and cell death than those of the wild type GAS-infected ones. Furthermore, the sagB mutant, but not the wild type or the sagB-complementary mutant, could induce GSK-3β degradation via a proteasome-dependent pathway. These results suggest that a new mechanism of SLS-induced macrophage death was through inhibiting GSK-3β degradation and further enhancing mitochondrial damage.
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Name: Scientific reports
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Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a common and versatile human pathogen causing a variety of diseases. One of the many virulence factors of GAS is the secreted pore-forming cytotoxin streptolysin O (SLO)...
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A serine peptidase that contains a C-terminal PDZ domain. It localizes to the mitochondrial membrane and intermembrane space, translocating to the cytoplasm following APOPTOSIS stimuli, such as UV irradiation; it promotes cell death by binding to and inhibiting INHIBITOR OF APOPTOSIS PROTEINS, resulting in an increase in activity of CASPASES. Mutations in the HTRA2 gene are associated with Type 13 PARKINSON DISEASE.
Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.
An inhibitory T-lymphocyte receptor that has specificity for CD274 ANTIGEN and PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 LIGAND 2 PROTEIN. Signaling by the receptor limits T cell proliferation and INTERFERON GAMMA synthesis. The receptor also may play an essential role in the regulatory pathway that induces PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
A forkhead box transcription factor and transcriptional activator which triggers type 1 programmed cell death (APOPTOSIS) in the absence of APOPTOSIS INHIBITING PROTEINS, including neuronal cell death induced by OXIDATIVE STRESS. It recognizes and binds to the DNA sequence 5'-(AG)TAAA(TC)A-3' and also functions in post-transcriptional regulation of the c-MYC PROTO-ONCOGENE.
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
GlaxoSmithKline is the third largest pharmaceutical company in the world, based on annual sales, which reached $37,134m in 2009. Spread over 100 countries, GSK employs 96,500 people, 13,000 of which are dedicated to research and development of the the ...