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Neuroglobin (Ngb) is predominantly expressed in neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems and it clearly seems to be involved in neuroprotection. Engineering Ngb to observe structural and dynamic alterations associated with perturbation in ligand binding might reveal important structural determinants, and could shed light on key features related to its mechanism of action. Our results highlight the relevance of the CD loop and of Phe106 as distal and proximal controls involved in ligand binding in murine neuroglobin. We observed the effects of individual and combined mutations of the CD loop and Phe106 that conferred to Ngb higher CO binding velocities, which we correlate with the following structural observations: the mutant F106A shows, upon CO binding, a reduced heme sliding hindrance, with the heme present in a peculiar double conformation, whereas in the CD loop mutant "Gly-loop", the original network of interactions between the loop and the heme was abolished, enhancing binding via facilitated gating out of the distal His64. Finally, the double mutant, combining both mutations, showed a synergistic effect on CO binding rates. Resonance Raman spectroscopy and MD simulations support our findings on structural dynamics and heme interactions in wild type and mutated Ngbs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Scientific reports
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The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
A subfamily of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that share a characteristic loop which is formed by a disulfide bond between two CYSTEINE residues. These receptors typically contain five subunits with the cysteine-loop occurring near an N-terminal extracellular domain.
The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.
A compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.
An AMILORIDE-sensitive sodium channel found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON, the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. It plays a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.