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Changes in environmental pH can induce morphological changes in empty proteinaceous shells of bacteriophages in vitro that are very similar to changes occurring in viral capsids in vivo after encapsidation of DNA. These changes in capsid shape and size cannot be explained with a simple elastic model alone. We propose a new theoretical framework that combines the elasticity of thin icosahedral shells with the pH dependence of capsid charge distribution. Minimization of the sum of elastic and electrostatic free energies leads to equilibrium shapes of viral shells that depend on a single elastic parameter and the detailed configuration of the imbedded protein charges. Based on the in vitro shell reconstructions of bacteriophage HK97 we elucidate the details of how the reversible transition between Prohead II and Expansion Intermediate II states of the HK97 procapsid is induced by pH changes, as well as some other features of the bacteriophage maturation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Scientific reports
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A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Morphological findings useful in differentiation and classification of results in CYTODIAGNOSIS and related techniques.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.
Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...